Role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases

Abstract

A cerebrovascular accident, or stroke, is defined as the abrupt onset of a neurological deficit, which can be due to ischemia. Cerebral ischemia is caused by a reduction in blood flow that thereby decreases cerebral metabolism. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion leads to irreversible brain damage and plays an important role in the development of certain types of dementia. Vinpocetine, chemically known as ethyl apovincaminate, is a vinca alkaloid that exhibits cerebral blood-flow enhancing and neuroprotective effects. Nonclinical and clinical studies have suggested multiple mechanisms responsible for the beneficial neuroprotective effects of vinpocetine. As no significant side effects related to vinpocetine treatment have been reported, it is considered to be safe for long-term use. This vasoactive alkaloid is widely marketed as a supplement for vasodilation and as a nootropic for the improvement of memory. The present review focuses on studies investigating the role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases.

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Abbreviations

Aβ:

amyloid β-peptides

AD:

Alzheimer’s disease

AEDs:

antiepileptic drugs

AICVD:

asymptomatic ischemic cerebrovascular disorders

ATP:

adenosine triphosphate

CGI:

Clinical Global Impression

cGMP:

cyclic guanosine monophosphate

DOPAC:

3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid

DPG:

2,3-diphosphoglycerate

GABA:

γ-aminobutyric acid

LC:

locus coeruleus

MMSQ:

mini-mental status questionnaire

NMDA:

N-methyl-D-aspartic acid

PET:

positron emission tomography

PSNHL:

progressive sensorineural hearing loss

PTZ:

pentylenetetrazole

RBC:

red blood cell

rCBF:

regional cerebral blood flow

ROS:

reactive oxygen species

RR:

relative risk

SCAG:

Sandoz clinical assessment geriatric scale

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Correspondence to Bikash Medhi.

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Patyar, S., Prakash, A., Modi, M. et al. Role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases. Pharmacol. Rep 63, 618–628 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1734-1140(11)70574-6

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Key words

  • vinpocetine
  • cerebrovascular
  • neuroprotection
  • ischemia
  • nootropic
  • positron emission tomography