Journal of Bionic Engineering

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 607–615 | Cite as

The Honeybee’s Protrusible Glossa is a Compliant Mechanism

Article

Abstract

Many biological structures can perform highly-dexterous actions by using dynamic surfaces. To deal with the contradictive demands of high feeding efficiency and low energy expenditure during nectar feeding, the glossal surface of a honeybee undergoes shape changes, in which glossal hairs erect together with segment elongation in a drinking cycle. In this paper, we extracted a transmission link embedded in the glossa from postmortem examination and found that the compliance of the intersegmental membranes provides more possibilities for this highly kinematic synchronicity. According to the morphing phenomena of honeybee’s glossa, we proposed a compliant mechanism model to predict the deformation behavior of honeybee considering elastic properties of the glossal intersegmental membranes. The increase of membrane stiffness may improve the capacity of elastic potential energy transfer, but will still result in the increase of mass. An index is introduced to evaluate the contradiction for optimizing structural parameters. This work may arouse new prospects for conceptual design of micro-mechanical systems equipped with bio-inspired compliant mechanisms.

Keywords

honeybee glossal membrane compliant mechanism stiffness evaluation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Vincent J F V. Deployable structures in nature: Potential for biomimicking. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2000, 214, 1–10.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Anderson C V. Off like a shot: Scaling of ballistic tongue projection reveals extremely high performance in small chameleons. Scientific Reports, 2016, 6, 18625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Van Wassenbergh S, Strother J A, Flammang B E, Ferry-Graham L A, Aerts P. Extremely fast prey capture in pipefish is powered by elastic recoil. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2008, 5, 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Krenn H W, Plant J D, Szucsich N U. Mouthparts of flower-visiting insects. Arthropod Structure & Development, 2005, 34, 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Kim W, Bush J W M. Natural drinking strategies. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2012, 705, 7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Lee S J, Kim B H, Lee J Y. Experimental study on the fluid mechanics of blood sucking in the proboscis of a female mosquito. Journal of Biomechanics, 2009, 42, 857–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Lehnert M S, Mulvane C P, Brothers A. Mouthpart separation does not impede butterfly feeding. Arthropod Structure & Development, 2014, 43, 97–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Kim W, Gilet T, Bush J W M. Optimal concentrations in nectar feeding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011, 108, 16618–16621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Paul J, Roces F. Fluid intake rates in ants correlate with their feeding habits. Journal of Insect Physiology, 2003, 49, 347–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Moulton D E, Lessinnes T, O’Keeffe S, Dorfmann L, Goriely A. The elastic secrets of the chameleon tongue. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical Physical & Engineering Sciences, 2016, 472, 20160030.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Rico-Guevara A, Fan T H, Rubega M A. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Science, 2015, 282, 20151014.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Harper C J, Swartz S M, Brainerd E L. Specialized bat tongue is a hemodynamic nectar mop. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013, 110, 8852–8857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Pernal S F, Currie R W. The influence of pollen quality on foraging behavior in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2001, 51, 53–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Wu J, Zhu R, Yan S, Yang Y. Erection pattern and section-wise wettability of honeybee glossal hairs in nectar feeding. Journal of Experimental Biology, 2015, 218, 664–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Zhao J, Wu J, Yan S. Erection mechanism of glossal hairs during honeybee feeding. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 2015, 386, 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Snodgrass R E. Anatomy of the Honey Bee, Cornell University Press, London, UK, 1984.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Zhu R, Lv H, Liu T, Yang Y, Wu J, Yan S. Feeding kinematics and nectar intake of the honey bee tongue. Journal of Insect Behavior, 2016, 29, 325–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Li C, Wu J, Yang Y, Zhu R, Shao Z. Drag reduction in the mouthpart of a honeybee facilitated by galea ridges for nectar-dipping strategy. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2015, 12, 70–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Zhao C, Wu J, Yan S. Observations and temporal model of a honeybee’s hairy tongue in microfluid transport. Journal of Applied Physics, 2015, 118, 194701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Roberts T J, Azizi E. Flexible mechanisms: the diverse roles of biological springs in vertebrate movement. Journal of Experimental Biology, 2011, 214, 353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Chen Y, Wang X, Ren H, Yin H, Jia S. Hierarchical dragonfly wing: Microstructure-biomechanical behavior relations. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2012, 9, 185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Lichtwark G A, Bougoulias K, Wilson A M. Muscle fascicle and series elastic element length changes along the length of the human gastrocnemius during walking and running. Journal of Biomechanics, 2007, 40, 157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Moulton D E, Lessinnes T, O’Keeffe S, Dorfmann L, Goriely A. The elastic secrets of the chameleon tongue. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical Physical & Engineering Sciences, 2016, 472, 20160030.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Dickinson M H, Lighton J R B. Muscle efficiency and elastic potential energy storage in the flight motor of Drosophila. Science, 1995, 268, 87–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Wager J C, Challis J H. Elastic energy within the human plantar aponeurosis contributes to arch shortening during the push-off phase of running. Journal of Biomechanics, 2016, 49, 704–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Gronenberg W. Fast actions in small animals: Springs and click mechanisms. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 1996, 178, 727–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Higham T E, Irschick D J. Springs, steroids, and slingshots: The roles of enhancers and constraints in animal movement. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 2013, 183, 583–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Jensen B D, Howell L L, Salmon L G. Design of two-link, in-plane, bistable compliant micro-mechanisms. Journal of Mechanical Design, 1999, 121, 416–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Vincent J F V, Wegst U G K. Design and mechanical properties of insect cuticle. Arthropod Structure & Development, 2004, 33, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Wegst U G K, Ashby M F. The mechanical efficiency of natural materials. Philosophical Magazine, 2004, 84, 2167–2186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Appel E, Heepe L, Lin C P, Gorb S N. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: Composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin. Journal of Anatomy, 2015, 227, 561–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Lobontiu N. Compliant Mechanisms: Design of Flexure Hinges, CRC press, Boca Raton, USA, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Jilin University 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering and TechnologyChina University of Geosciences (Beijing)BeijingChina
  2. 2.Division of Intelligent and Biomechanical Systems, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations