Yield Surfaces and Plastic Flow of 45 Steel Under Tension-Torsion Loading Paths
An experimental analysis on the subsequent yield-surfaces evolution using multiple specimens is presented for a 45 steel after a prescribed pre-strain loading in three different directions respectively, and the yielding is defined by a designated offsetting strain. The size of the subsequent yield surface is found smaller than the initial yield surface; the negative cross effects are observed in the normal loading direction, its shape is not a Mises circle but has a rather blunt nose in loading direction and flat in the opposite. These results strongly depend on the loading path and the prescribed offset plastic strain. The plastic flow direction to the subsequent yield surface is investigated, and it is found that the plastic flow direction deviates from the normal flow rule. The deviation differs from preloading case to preloading case. And the plastic flow direction would have a larger deviation from the normal of the yield surface, if the subsequent yield was defined by a smaller offset strain. Furthermore, the experiments are simulated using the Chaboche model, and the results show that it can rationally predict yield-surface only when yield is defined by a fairly large offset strain.
Key wordssubsequent yield surface plastic flow direction multiple specimen methods offset strain
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