, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 100–114

Biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of treatment efficacy for traumatic brain injury

  • Pramod K. Dash
  • Jing Zhao
  • Georgene Hergenroeder
  • Anthony N. Moore
Review Article


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a serious health concern, and TBI is one of the leading causes of death and disability, especially among young adults. Although preventive education, increased usage of safety devices, and TBI management have dramatically increased the potential for surviving a brain injury, there is still a need to develop reliable methods to diagnose TBI, the secondary pathologies associated with TBI, and predicting the outcomes of TBI. Biomarkers (changes of amount or activity in a biomolecule that reflect injury or disease) have shown promise in the diagnosis of several conditions, including cancer, heart failure, infection, and genetic disorders. A variety of proteins, small molecules, and lipid products have been proposed as potential biomarkers of brain damage from TBI. Although some of these changes have been reported to correlate with mortality and outcome, further research is required to identify prognostic biomarkers. This need is punctuated in mild injuries that cannot be readily detected using current techniques, as well as in defining patient risk for developing TBI-associated secondary injuries.

Key Words

Blast injury diffused axonal injury intracranial pressure loss of consciousness post-concussive symptoms PTSD 


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Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pramod K. Dash
    • 1
  • Jing Zhao
    • 1
  • Georgene Hergenroeder
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anthony N. Moore
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology and AnatomyThe University of Texas Medical SchoolHouston
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryThe University of Texas Medical SchoolHouston
  3. 3.Vivian L. Smith Center for Neurologic ResearchThe University of Texas Medical SchoolHouston

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