, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 86–99 | Cite as

Spinal cord stimulation: An update

Review Article


Spinal cord stimulation has been used in the treatment of many chronic pain disorders since 1967. In this update, the indications for spinal cord stimulation are reviewed with attention to recent publications. A focused review of the literature on abdominal and visceral pain syndromes is also provided. Furthermore, the technology has evolved from the use of monopolar electrodes to complex electrode arrays. Similarly, the power source has changed from a radio frequency-driven system to a rechargeable impulse generator. These topics are covered, along with a short discussion of implant technique. Finally, we include a review of complications of such therapy. SCS as a technology and therapy continues to evolve.

Key Words

Spinal cord stimulation dorsal column stimulation chronic pain neuropathic pain pacemaker 


  1. 1.
    Devulder J, De Colvenaer L, Rolly G, Caemaert J, Calliauw L, Martens F. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic pain therapy. Clin J Pain 1990;6:51–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Devulder J, Vermeulen H, De Colvenaer L, Rolly G, Calliauw L, Caemaert J. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic pain: evaluation of results, complications, and technical considerations in sixty-nine patients. Clin J Pain 1991;7:21–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Racz GB, McCarron RF, Talboys P. Percutaneous dorsal column stimulator for chronic pain control. Spine 1989;14:1–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Melzack R, Wall PD. Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science 1965;150:971–979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shealy CN, Cady RK. Historical perspective of pain management. In: Weiner S, editor. Pain management: a practical guide for clinicians, 5th ed. 1998Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucic Press, 7–15.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shealy CN, Mortimer JT, Reswick JB. Electrical inhibition of pain by stimulation of the dorsal columns: preliminary clinical report. Anesth Analg 1967;46:489–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoppenstein R. A device for measuring intracranial pressure. Lancet 1965;1:90–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Larson SJ, Sances A, Cusick JF, Meyer GA, Swiontek T. A comparison between anterior and posterior spinal implant systems. Surg Neurol 1975;4:180–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lazorthes Y, Verdic JC, Arbus L. Anterior and posterior medullary analgesic stimulation, using a percutaneous implantation technic [In French]. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1978;40:277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dooley DM. Percutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. Assoc. Neurol. Surg. Bal Harbour, FL, 1975.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Waltz JM. Computerized percutaneous multi-level spinal cord stimulation in motor disorders. Appl Neurophysiol 1982;45: 73–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cobum B. Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord: two-dimensional finite element analysis with particular reference to epidural electrodes. Med Biol Eng Comput 1980;18:573–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cobum B. A theoretical study of epidural electrical stimulation of the spinal cord—Part II: Effects on long myelinated fibers. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1985;32:978–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cobum B, Sin WK. A theoretical study of epidural electrical stimulation of the spinal cord—Part I: Finite element analysis of stimulus fields. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1985;32:971–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holsheimer J, Barolat G, Struijk JJ, He J. Significance of the spinal cord position in spinal cord stimulation. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1995;64:119–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holsheimer J, Struijk JJ. How do geometric factors influence epidural spinal cord stimulation? A quantitative analysis by computer modeling. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1991;56:234–249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holsheimer J, Wesselink WA. Effect of anode-cathode configuration on paresthesia coverage in spinal cord stimulation. Neurosurgery 1997;41:654–659; discussion 659–660.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Foreman RD, Beall JE, Coulter JD, Willis WD. Effects of dorsal column stimulation on primate spinothalamic tract neurons. J Neurophysiol 1976;39:534–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Linderoth B, Gazelius B, Franck J, Brodin E. Dorsal column stimulation induces release of serotonin and substance P in the cat dorsal horn. Neurosurgery 1992;31:289–296; discussion 296–297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Linderoth B, Stiller CO, Gunasekera L, O’Connor WT, Ungerstedt U, Brodin E. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is released in the dorsal hom by electrical spinal cord stimulation: an in vivo microdialysis study in the rat. Neurosurgery 1994;34:484–488; discussion 488–489.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barolat G, Schwartzman R, Woo R. Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1989;53:29–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kumar K, Nath RK, Toth C. Spinal cord stimulation is effective in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Neurosurgery 1997;40:503–508; discussion 508–509.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kemler MA, Barendse GA, Van Kleef M, Van Den Wildenberg FA, Weber WE. Electrical spinal cord stimulation in reflex sympathetic dystrophy: retrospective analysis of 23 patients. J Neurosurg 1999;90(1 Suppl):79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kemler MA, Barendse GA, van Kleef M, et al. Spinal cord stimulation in patients with chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy. N Engl J Med 2000;343:618–624.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kemler MA, de Vet HC, Barendse GA, van den Wildenberg FA, van Kleef M. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy: five-year follow-up. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2394–2396.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oakley JC, Weiner RL. Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome: a prospective study of 19 patients at two centers. Neuromodulation 1999;2:47–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Calvillo O, Racz G, Didic J, Smith K. Neuroaugmentation in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome of the upper extremity. Acta Orthop Belg 1998;64:57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ebel H, Balogh A, Volz M, Klug N. Augmentative treatment of chronic deafferentation pain syndromes after peripheral nerve lesions. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2000;43:44–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cameron T. Safety and efficacy of spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain: a 20-year literature review. J Neurosurg 2004;100:254–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Law JD. Targeting a spinal stimulator to treat the ‘failed back surgery syndrome.’ Appl Neurophysiol 1987;50:437–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Law JD. Spinal stimulation in the “failed back surgery syndrome”: Comparison of technical criteria for palliating pain in the leg vs. in the low back. Acta Neurochir 1992;117:95.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    North R, Kidd DH, Olin J, Sieracki JM, Cutchis PN. Spinal cord stimulation for axial low back pain: single versus dual percutaneous electrodes. In: Neuromodulation for pain and motor disorders. Proc. 4th Int. Congr. Int. Neuromodulation Soc, 16–20 Sept. 1998, Lucerne, Switzerland. San Francisco: International Neuromodulation Society, 1998: 212 (abstract). Available at: Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sharan AD, Miyazawa G, Greenberg J, King G. Selective dorsal column activation with three column electrode arrays using percutaneous and paddle leads. Abstract 737. Presented at Annu Meet Am Assoc Neurol Surgeons (AANS), April 14–19, 2007, Washington, DC. Available at [article ID 40855].Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marchand S, Bushneil MC, Molina-Negro P, Martinez SN, Duncan GH. The effects of dorsal column stimulation on measures of clinical and experimental pain in man. Pain 1991;45:249–257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    North RB, Ewend MG, Lawton MT, Kidd DH, Piantadosi S. Failed back surgery syndrome: 5-year follow-up after spinal cord stimulator implantation. Neurosurgery 1991;28:692–699.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Turner JA, Loeser JD, Bell KG. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic low back pain: a systematic literature synthesis. Neurosurgery 1995;37:1088–1095; discussion 1095–1096.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Burchiel KJ, Anderson VC, Brown FD, et al. Prospective, multicenter study of spinal cord stimulation for relief of chronic back and extremity pain. Spine 1996;21:2786–2794.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    North RB, Kidd DH, Piantadosi S. Spinal cord stimulation versus reOperation for failed back surgery syndrome: a prospective, randomized study design. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1995;64:106–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Augustinsson LE. Spinal cord electrical stimulation in severe angina pectoris: surgical technique, intraoperative physiology, complications, and side effects. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1989;12:693–694.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    de Jongste MJ, Haaksma J, Hautvast RW, et al. Effects of spinal cord stimulation on myocardial ischaemia during daily life in patients with severe coronary artery disease: a prospective ambulatory electrocardiographic study. Br Heart J 1994;71:413–418.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    de Jongste MJ, Hautvast RW, Hillege HL, Lic KI; Working Group on Neurocardiology. Efficacy of spinal cord stimulation as adjuvant therapy for intractable angina pectoris: a prospective, randomized clinical study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;23:1592–1597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mannheimer C, Augustinsson LE, Carlsson CA, Manhem K, Wilhelmsson C. Epidural spinal electrical stimulation in severe angina pectoris. Br Heart J 1988;59:56–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sanderson JE, Brooksby P, Waterhouse D, Palmer RB, Neubauer K. Epidural spinal electrical stimulation for severe angina: a study of its effects on symptoms, exercise tolerance and degree of ischaemia. Eur Heart J 1992;13:628–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hautvast RW, Blanksma PK, DeJongste MJ, et al. Effect of spinal cord stimulation on myocardial blood flow assessed by positron emission tomography in patients with refractory angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1996;77:462–467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nienke C, Vulink C, Overgaauw DM, Jessenin GAJ, TenVaarwerk IAM, Kropmans TJB, ven der Shans CP, Middel B, Staal MJ, DeJongste MJL. The effects of spinal cord stimulation on quality of life in patients with therapeutically chronic refractory angina pectoris. Neuromodulation 1999 2:33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hautvast RW, DeJongste MJ, Staal MJ, van Gilst WH, Lic KI. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic intractable angina pectoris: a randomized, controlled efficacy study. Am Heart J 1998;136:1114–1120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mannheimer C, Eliasson T, Augustinsson LE, et al. Electrical stimulation versus coronary artery bypass surgery in severe angina pectoris: the ESBY study. Circulation 1998;97:1157–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ekre O, Eliasson T, Norrsell H, et al. Long-term effects of spinal cord stimulation and coronary artery bypass grafting on quality of life and survival in the ESBY study. Eur Heart J 2002;23:1938–1945.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Di Pede F, Lanza GA, Zuin G, et al.; Investigators of the Prospective Italian Registry of SCS for Angina Pectoris. Immediate and long-term clinical outcome after spinal cord stimulation for refractory stable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:951–955.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Andersen C. Complications in spinal cord stimulation for treatment of angina pectoris: differences in unipolar and multipolar percutaneous inserted electrodes. Acta Cardiol 1997;52:325–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bagger JP, Jensen BS, Johannsen G. Long-term outcome of spinal cord electrical stimulation in patients with refractory chest pain. Clin Cardiol 1998;21:286–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Eliasson T, Jem S, Augustinsson LE, Mannheimer C. Safety aspects of spinal cord stimulation in severe angina pectoris. Coron Artery Dis 1994;5:845–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sanderson JE, Ibrahim B, Waterhouse D, Palmer RB. Spinal electrical stimulation for intractable angina: long-term clinical outcome and safety. Eur Heart J 1994;15:810–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Andersen C, Hole P, Oxhøj H. Will SCS treatment for angina pectoris pain conceal myocardial infraction? Abstracts of the First Meeting of the International Neuromodulation Society. Rome, 1992. Bologna: Monduzzi, 1993.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Andersen C, Hole P, Oxhøj H. Does pain relief with spinal cord stimulation for angina conceal myocardial infarction? Br Heart J 1994;71:419–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hautvast R. Cardiac nociception in rats: neuronal pathways and the influence of dermal stimulation on conveyance to the central nervous system. J Mol Neurosci 2003;20:43–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Murray S, Carson KG, Ewings PD, Collins PD, James MA. Spinal cord stimulation significantly decreases the need for acute hospital admission for chest pain in patients with refractory angina pectoris. Heart 1999;82: 89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    González-Darder J, González-Martínez V, Canela-Moya P. Cervical spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of severe angina pectoris. Neurosurg Q 1998;8:16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Augustinsson LE, Eliasson T, Mannheimer C. Spinal cord stimulation in severe angina pectoris. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1995;65:136–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Andersen C. Does heart rate variability change in angina pectoris patients treated with spinal cord stimulation? Cardiology 1998;89:14–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    DeJongste MJL. Efficacy, safety and mechanisms of spinal cord stimulation used as an additional therapy for patients suffering from chronic refractory angina pectoris. Neuromodulation 1999;2:188–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hautvast RW, Brouwer J, DeJongste MJ, Lic KI. Effect of spinal cord stimulation on heart rate variability and myocardial ischemia in patients with chronic intractable angina pectoris: a prospective ambulatory electrocardiographic study. Clin Cardiol 1998;21:33–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Meller ST, Gebhart GF. A critical review of the afferent pathways and the potential chemical mediators involved in cardiac pain. Neuroscience 1992;48:501–524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thämer V, Deussen A, Schipke JD, Tölle T, Heusch G. Pain and myocardial ischemia: the role of sympathetic activation. Basic Res Cardiol 1990;85 Suppl 1:253–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Norrsell H, Pilhall M, Eliasson T, Mannheimer C. Effects of spinal cord stimulation and coronary artery bypass grafting on myocardial ischemia and heart rate variability: further results from the ESBY study. Cardiology 2000;94:12–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Eddicks S, Maier-Hauff K, Schenk M, Müller A, Baumann G, Theres H. Thoracic spinal cord stimulation improves functional status and relieves symptoms in patients with refractory angina pectoris: the first placebo-controlled randomised study. Heart 2007;93:585–590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cook AW, Weinstein SP. Chronic dorsal column stimulation in multiple sclerosis: preliminary report. N Y State J Med 1973;73:2868–2872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cook AW, Oygar A, Baggenstos P, Pacheco S, Kleriga E. Vascular disease of extremities. Electric stimulation of spinal cord and posterior roots. N Y State J Med 1976;76:366–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Meglio M, Cioni B, Dal Lago A, De Santis M, Pola P, Serricchio M. Pain control and improvement of peripheral blood flow following epidural spinal cord stimulation: case report. J Neurosurg 1981;54: 821–823.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jacobs MJ, Jöining PJ, Joshi SR, Kitslaar PJ, Slaaf DW, Reneman RS. Epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation improves micro-vascular blood flow in severe limb ischemia. Ann Surg 1988;207: 179–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Klomp HM, Spincemaille GH, Steyerberg EW, Habbema JD, van Urk H; ESES Study Group. Spinal-cord stimulation in critical limb ischaemia: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;353:1040–1044.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jivegård LE, Augustinsson LE, Holm J, Risberg B, Ortenwall P. Effects of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in patients with inoperable severe lower limb ischaemia: a prospective randomised controlled study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1995;9:421–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Broseta J, Barberá J, de Vera JA, et al. Spinal cord stimulation in peripheral arterial disease: a cooperative study. J Neurosurg 1986;64:71–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fiume D, Palombi M, Sciassa V, Tamorri M. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in peripheral ischemic pain. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1989;12:698–704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Galley D, Rettori R, Boccalon H, et al. Electric stimulation of the spinal cord in arterial diseases of the legs: a multicenter study of 244 patients [in French]. J Mal Vasc 1992;17:208–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Horsch S, Claeys L. Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Ann Vasc Surg 1994;8:468–474.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jacobs MJ, Jörning PJ, Beckers RC, et al. Foot salvage and improvement of microvascular blood flow as a result of epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation. J Vasc Surg 1990;12:354–360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sampère CT, Guasch JA, Paladino CM, Sánchez Casalongue M, Elencwajg B. Spinal cord stimulation for severely ischemic limbs. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1989;12:273–279.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Guamera G, Furgiuele S, Camilli S. Spinal cord electric stimulation vs. femoro-distal bypass in critical ischemia of the legs. Preliminary results in a randomized prospective study [In Italian]. Minerva Cardioangiol 1994;42:223–227.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ubbink DT, Vermeulen H. Spinal cord stimulation for non-reconstructable chronic critical leg ischaemia [Update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD004001]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(3):CD004001.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Croom J, Foreman R, Chandler M, Barron K. Reevaluation of the role of the sympathetic nervous system in cutaneous vasodilation during dorsal spinal cord stimulation: are multiple mechanisms active? Neuromodulation 1998;1: 91–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Linderoth B, Fedorcsak I, Meyerson BA. Is vasodilatation following dorsal column stimulation mediated by antidromic activation of small diameter afferents? Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1989;46:99–101.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Linderoth B, Fedorcsak I, Meyerson BA. Peripheral vasodilatation after spinal cord stimulation: animal studies of putative effector mechanisms. Neurosurgery 1991;28:187–195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Linderoth B, Gunasekera L, Meyerson BA. Effects of sympathectomy on skin and muscle microcirculation during dorsal column stimulation: animal studies. Neurosurgery 1991;29:874–879.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sánchez-Ledesma MJ, García-March G, Gonçalves J, et al. Role of vasoactive substances in the segmentary vasomotor response following spinal cord stimulation. An experimental study. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1990;54–55:224–231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hirshberg RM, Al-Chaer ED, Lawand NB, Westlund KN, Willis WD. Is there a pathway in the posterior funiculus that signals visceral pain? Pain 1996;67:291–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ceballos A, Cabezudo L, Bovaira M, Fenollosa P, Moro B. Spinal cord stimulation: a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic mesenteric ischaemia. Pain 2000;87:99–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Krames E, Mousad DG. Spinal cord stimulation reverses pain and diarrheal episodes of irritable bowel syndrome: a case report. Neuromodulation 2004;7:82–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Khan YN, Raza SS, Khan EA. Application of spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of abdominal visceral pain syndromes: case reports. Neuromodulation 2005;8:14–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tiede JM, Ghazi SM, Lamer TJ, Obray JB. The use of spinal cord stimulation in refractory abdominal visceral pain: case reports and literature review. Pain Pract 2006;6:197–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kapur S, Mutagi H, Raphael J. Spinal cord stimulation for relief of abdominal pain in two patients with familial Mediterranean fever. Br J Anaesth 2006;97:866–868.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kapural L, Narouze SN, Janicki TI, Mekhail N. Spinal cord stimulation is an effective treatment for the chronic intractable visceral pelvic pain. Pain Med 2006;7:440–443.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ness TJ, Gebhart GF. Visceral pain: a review of experimental studies. Pain 1990;41:167–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mitchell GAG. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system. Edinburgh: Livingstone, 1953.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Barolat G, Massaro F, He J, Zeme S, Ketcik B. Mapping of sensory responses to epidural stimulation of the intraspinal neural structures in man. J Neurosurg 1993;78:233–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    North R, Kidd DH, Olin J, Sieracki JM. Spinal cord stimulation electrode design: a prospective randomized comparison of percutaneous and insulated paddle electrodes. In: Neuromodulation for pain and motor disorders. Proc. 4th Int. Congr. Int. Neuromodulation Soc, 16–20 Sept. 1998, Lucerne, Switzerland. San Francisco: International Neuromodulation Society, 1998:211 (abstract). Available at: Scholar
  97. 97.
    Holsheimer J, Nuttin B, King GW, Wesselink WA, Gybels JM, de Sutter P. Clinical evaluation of paresthesia steering with a new system for spinal cord stimulation. Neurosurgery 1998;42:541–547; discussion 547–549.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Aló K, Poli P, Ghiara M, Ciaramella A, Varelli G, Yland M. The treatment of refractory reflex sympathetic dystrophy with higher frequency tripolar dual octrode spinal cord stimulation, a case report. In: Neuromodulation for pain and motor disorders. Proc. 4th Int. Congr. Int. Neuromodulation Soc., 16–20 Sept. 1998, Lucerne, Switzerland. San Francisco: International Neuromodulation Society, 1998:282 (abstract). Available at: Scholar
  99. 99.
    Quigley DG, Arnold J, Eldridge PR, et al. Long-term outcome of spinal cord stimulation and hardware complications. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2003;81:50–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Spincemaille GH, Klomp HM, Steyerberg EW, van Urk H, Habbema JD; ESES Study Group. Technical data and complications of spinal cord stimulation: data from a randomized trial on critical limb ischemia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2000;74:63–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryJefferson Medical CollegePhiladelphia

Personalised recommendations