, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 75–83

Use of antiepileptic drugs for nonepileptic conditions: Psychiatric disorders and chronic pain



Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are commonly utilized for nonepileptic conditions, including various psychiatric disorders and pain syndromes. Evidence for their benefit in these nonepileptic conditions varies widely among different drugs, but there is, in general, a paucity of published multicenter randomized double-blind trials. Variable levels of evidence suggest that lamotrigine and the vagal nerve stimulator have antidepressant properties. Carbamazepine, valproate, lamotrigine, and oxcarbazepine appear to have mood stabilizing properties while gabapentin, pregabalin, and tiagabine have anxiolytic benefits. Barbiturates, topiramate, and possibly phenytoin may precipitate or exacerbate depression. Underlying depression and anxiety symptoms may be exacerbated by levetiracetam, while psychotic symptoms have rarely been reported with topiramate, levetiracetam, and zonisamide. Pregabalin, gabapentin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine have been used to treat neuropathic pain such as postherpetic neuralgia, and diabetic polyneuropathy. Topiramate and divalproex sodium have utility in the prophylaxis or acute treatment of migraine. Further rigorous studies are needed to clarify the utility of AEDs in nonepileptic conditions.

Key Words

Psychotropic properties antiepileptic drugs depression anxiety psychosis pain neuropathic pain migraine 


  1. 1.
    Ballenger JC, Post RM. Carbamazepine in manic-depressive illness: a new treatment. Am J Psychiatry 1980;137: 782–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goodnick PJ. Anticonvulsants in the treatment of bipolar mania. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2006;7: 401–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rush AJ, Fava M, Wisniewski SR, et al. Sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D): rationale and design. Control Clin Trials 2004;25: 119–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rush AJ, Trivedi M, Fava M. Depression, IV: STAR*D treatment trial for depression. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160: 237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Swartz MS, Perkins DO, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Nieri JM, Haak DC. Assessing clinical and functional outcomes in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial. Schizophr Bull 2003;29: 33–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Toczek MT, Carson RE, Lang L, et al. PET imaging of 5-HT1A receptor binding in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology 2003;60: 749–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sargent PA, Kjaer KH, Bench CJ, et al. Brain serotoninlA receptor binding measured by positron emission tomography with [11C]WAY-100635: effects of depression and antidepressant treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57: 174–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dailey JW, Reither MEA, Yan QS, Li MY, Jobe PC. Anticonvulsant doses of carbamazepine increase hippocampal extracellular serotonin in genetically epilepsy-prone rats: dose response relationships. Neurosci Lett 1997;226: 13–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Southam E, Kirkby D, Higgins GA, Hagan RM. Lamotrigine inhibits monoamine uptake in vitro and modulates 5-hydroxy-tryptamine uptake in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1998;358: 19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Whitton PS, Fowler LJ. The effect of valproic acid on 5-hydroxy-tryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration in hippocampal dialysates in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 1991;200: 167–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yan QS, Mishra PK, Burger RL, Bettendorf AF, Jobe PC, Dailey JW. Evidence that carbamazepine and antiepilepsirine may produce a component of their anticonvulsant effects by activating serotonergic neurons in genetically epilepsy-prone rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992;261: 652–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naritoku DK, Terry WJ, Helfert RH. Regional induction of fos immunoreactivity in the brain by anticonvulsant stimulation of the vagus nerve. Epilepsy Res 1995;22: 53–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Browning RA, Clark KB, Naritoku DK, Smith DC, Jenson RA. Loss of anticonvulsant effect of vagus nerve stimulation in the pentylenetetrazol seizure model following treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine or 5,7-dihyrdroxy-tryptamine. Soc Neurosci 1997;23: 2424.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nahas Z, Marangell LB, Husain MM, et al. Two-year outcome of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for treatment of major depressive episodes. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66: 1097–1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reynolds EH, Trimble MR. Adverse neuropsychiatric effects of anticonvulsant drugs. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1985;23: 21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hauser P, Devinsky O, DeBellis M, et al. Benzodiazepine withdrawal delirium with catatonic features. Arch Neurol 1989;46: 696–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bowden CL, Calabrese JR, McElroy SL, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled 12-month trial of divalproex and lithium in treatment of outpatients with bipolar I disorder. Divalproex Maintenance Study Group. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57: 481–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Findling RL, McNamara NK, Youngstrom EA, et al. Doubleblind 18-month trial of lithium versus divalproex maintenance treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;44: 409–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Winsberg ME, DeGolia SG, Strong CM, Ketter TA. Divalproex therapy in medication-naive and mood-stabilizer-naive bipolar II depression. J Affect Disord 2001;67: 207–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Porsteinsson AP, Tariot PN, Erb R, et al. Placebo-controlled study of divalproex sodium for agitation in dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2001;9: 58–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sival RC, Haffmans PM, Jansen PA, Duursma SA, Eikelenboom P. Sodium valproate in the treatment of aggressive behavior in patients with dementia—a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002;17: 579–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hollander E, Tracy KA, Swann AC, et al. Divalproex in the treatment of impulsive aggression: efficacy in cluster B personality disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003;28: 1186–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baetz M, Bowen RC. Efficacy of divalproex sodium in patients with panic disorder and mood instability who have not responded to conventional therapy. Can J Psychiatry 1998;43: 73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Woodman CL, Noyes R Jr. Panic disorder: treatment with valproate. J Clin Psychiatry 1994;55: 134–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mishory A, Yaroslavsky Y, Bersudsky Y, Belmaker RH. Phenytoin as an antimanic anticonvulsant: a controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157: 463–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mishory A, Winokur M, Bersudsky Y. Prophylactic effect of phenytoin in bipolar disorder: a controlled study. Bipolar Disord 2003;5: 464–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nemets B, Bersudsky Y, Belmaker RH. Controlled double-blind trial of phenytoin vs. fluoxetine in major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66: 586–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stanford MS, Helfritz LE, Conklin SM, et al. A comparison of anticonvulsants in the treatment of impulsive aggression. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2005;13: 72–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kowatch RA, Suppes T, Carmody TJ, et al. Effect size of lithium, divalproex sodium, and carbamazepine in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000;39: 713–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ketter TA, Kalali AH, Weisler RH. A 6-month, multicenter, open-label evaluation of beaded, extended-release carbamazepine capsule monotherapy in bipolar disorder patients with manic or mixed episodes. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65: 668–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gajwani P, Forsthoff A, Muzina D, et al. Antiepileptic drugs in mood-disordered patients. Epilepsia 2005;46(suppl 4): 38–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Greil W, Kleindienst N, Erazo N, Muller-Oerlinghausen B. Differential response to lithium and carbamazepine in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1998;18: 455–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hartong EG, Moleman P, Hoogduin CA, Broekman TG, Nolen WA. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium versus carbamazepine in treatment-naive bipolar patients. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64: 144–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Weisler RH, Kalali AH, Ketter TA. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extended-release carbamazepine capsules as monotherapy for bipolar disorder patients with manic or mixed episodes. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65: 478–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weisler RH, Keck PE Jr, Swann AC, Cutler AJ, Ketter TA, Kalali AH. Extended-release carbamazepine capsules as monotherapy for acute mania in bipolar disorder: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66: 323–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ettinger AB, Bemal OG, Andriola MR, et al. Two cases of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in association with tiagabine therapy. Epilepsia 1999;40: 1159–1162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rosenthal M. Tiagabine for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized, open-label, clinical trial with paroxetine as a positive control. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64: 1245–1249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Suppes T, Chisholm KA, Dhavale D, et al. Tiagabine in treatment refractory bipolar disorder: a clinical case series. Bipolar Disord 2002;4: 283–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grunze H, Erfurth A, Marcuse A, Amann B, Normann C, Waiden J. Tiagabine appears not to be efficacious in the treatment of acute mania. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60: 759–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pande AC, Davidson JRT, Jefferson JW, et al. Treatment of social phobia with gabapentin: a placebo controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999;19: 341–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chouinard G, Beauclair L, Belanger M-C. Gabapentin: long-term antianxiety and hypnotic effects in psychiatric patients with comorbid anxiety-related disorders. Can J Psychiatry 1998: 43;305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chatterjee CR, Ringold AL. A case report of reduction in alcohol craving and protection against alcohol withdrawal by gabapentin. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60: 617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mariani JJ, Rosenthal RN, Tross S, Singh P, Anand OP. A randomized, open-label, controlled trial of gabapentin and phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Am J Addict 2006;15: 76–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Moretti R, Tone P, Antonello RM, Cazzato G, Bava A. Gabapentin for the treatment of behavioural alterations in dementia: preliminary 15-month investigation. Drugs Aging 2003;20: 1035–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rickels K, Pollack MH, Feltner DE, et al. Pregabalin for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a 4-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin and alprazolam. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62: 1022–1030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pohl RB, Feltner DE, Fieve RR, Pande AC. Efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of BID versus TID dosing. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2005;25: 151–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Calabrese JR, Bowden CL, Sachs GS, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of lamotrigine monotherapy in outpatients with bipolar I depression. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60: 79–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    McElroy SL, Zarate CA, Cookson J, et al. A 52-week, open-label continuation study of lamotrigine in the treatment of bipolar depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65: 204–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Calabrese JR, Bowden CL, Sachs G, et al. A placebo-controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently depressed patients with bipolar I disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64: 1013–1024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bowden CL, Calabrese JR, Sachs G, et al. A placebo-controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently manic or hypomanic patients with bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60: 392–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gates JR, Folland C, Ankenbauer JL, Moriarty GL, Penovich PE. Behavioral side effects of levetiracetam. Epilepsia 2002;43(suppl 7): 187.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    McBride AE, Perrine KR, Gunning-Dixon FM, Hamann J, Risbrook DN, Ettinger AB. Positive psychotropic effects associated with the use of lamotrigine in a clinical setting. Epilepsia 2002;43(suppl 7): 95–96.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mula M, Trimble MR, Yuen A, Liu RSN, Sander JWAS. Psychiatric adverse events during levetiracetam therapy. Neurology 2003;61: 704–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kossoff EH, Bergey GK, Freeman JM, Vining EP. Levetiracetam psychosis in children with epilepsy. Epilepsia 2001;42: 1611–1613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bersani G. Levetiracetam in bipolar spectrum disorders: first evidence of efficacy in an open, add-on study. Hum Psycho-pharmacol 2004;19: 355–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Grunze H, Langosch J, Born C, Schaub G, Waiden J. Levetiracetam in the treatment of acute mania: an open add-on study with an on-off-on design. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64: 781–784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Simon NM, Worthington JJ, Doyle AC, et al. An open-label study of levetiracetam for the treatment of social anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65: 1219–1222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    McElroy SL, Suppes T, Keck PE Jr, et al. Open-label adjunctive zonisamide in the treatment of bipolar disorders: a prospective trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66: 617–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Anand A, Bukhari L, Jennings SA, et al. A preliminary open-label study of zonisamide treatment for bipolar depression in 10 patients. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66: 195–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Spina E, Perugi G. Antiepileptic drugs: indications other than epilepsy. Epileptic Disord 2004;6: 57–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Benedetti A, Lattanzi L, Pini S, Musetti L, Dell’Osso L, Cassano GB. Oxcarbazepine as add-on treatment in patients with bipolar manic, mixed or depressive episode. J Affect Disord 2004;79: 273–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hummel B, Waiden J, Stampfer R, et al. Acute antimanic efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine in an open trial with an on-off-on design. Bipolar Disord 2002;4: 412–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bahk WM, Shin YC, Woo JM, et al. Topiramate and divalproex in combination with risperidone for acute mania: a randomized open-label study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2005;29: 115–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chengappa KN, Rathore D, Levine J, et al. Topiramate as add-on treatment for patients with bipolar mania. Bipolar Disord 1999;1: 42–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    McElroy SL, Suppes T, Keck PE, et al. Open-label adjunctive topiramate in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Biol Psychiatry 2000;47: 1025–1033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McIntyre RS, Mancini DA, McCann S, Srinivasan J, Sagman D, Kennedy SH. Topiramate versus bupropion SR when added to mood stabilizer therapy for the depressive phase of bipolar disorder: a preliminary single-blind study. Bipolar Disord 2002;4: 207–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kamini V, Karine M, John G, Stuart W, Allan Y. Topiramate for acute affective episodes in bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006:CD003384.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dursun SM, Devarajan S. Accelerated weight loss after treating refractory depression with fluoxetine plus topiramate: possible mechanisms of action? Can J Psychiatry 2001;46: 287–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kanner AM, Wuu J, Faught E, Tatum WO, Fix A, French JA. A past psychiatric history may be a risk factor for topiramate-related psychiatric and cognitive adverse events. Epilepsy Behav 2003;4: 548–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Reith D, Burke C, Appleton DB, Wallace G, Pelekanos J. Tolerability of topiramate in children and adolescents. J Paediatr Child Health 2003;39: 416–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kober D, Gabbard GO. Topiramate-induced psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162: 1542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Stella F, Caetano D, Cendes F, Guerreiro CA. Acute psychotic disorders induced by topiramate: report of two cases. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2002;60: 285–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Besag FM. Behavioural effects of the newer antiepileptic drugs: an update. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2004;3: 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hofer A, Fleischhacker WW, Hummer M. Worsening of psychosis after replacement of adjunctive valproate with topiramate in a schizophrenia patient. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64: 1267–1268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Duggal HS, Singh I. Worsening of psychosis or topiramate-induced adverse event? Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2004;26: 245–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nickel MK, Nickel C, Mitterlehner FO, et al. Topiramate treatment of aggression in female borderline personality disorder patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65: 1515–1519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nickel MK, Nickel C, Kaplan P, et al. Treatment of aggression with topiramate in male borderline patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57: 495–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Janowsky DS, Kraus JE, Barnhill J, Elamir B, Davis JM. Effects of topiramate on aggressive, self-injurious, and disruptive/destructive behaviors in the intellectually disabled: an open-label retrospective study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003;23: 500–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Berlant JL. Prospective open-label study of add-on and mono-therapy topiramate in civilians with chronic nonhallucinatory posttraumatic stress disorder. BMC Psychiatry 2004;4: 24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rush AJ, George MS, Sackeim HA, et al. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for treatment-resistant depression: a multicenter study. Biol Psychiatry 2000;47: 276–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    George MS, Rush AJ, Marangell LB, et al. A one-year comparison of vagus nerve stimulation with treatment as usual for treatment-resistant depression. Biol Psychiatry 2005;58: 364–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Backonja MM. Use of anticonvulsants for treatment of neuropathic pain. Neurology 2002;59(suppl 2): S14–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dworkin RH, Corbin AE, Young JP Jr, et al. Pregabalin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 2003;60: 1274–1283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sabatowski R, Galvez R, Cherry DA, et al. Pregabalin reduces pain and improves sleep and mood disturbances in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pain 2004;109: 26–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rosenstock J, Tuchman M, LaMoreaux L, et al. Pregabalin for the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain 2004;110: 628–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lesser H, Sharma U, LaMoreaux L, et al. Pregabalin relieves symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2004;63: 2104–2110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Richter RW, Portenoy R, Sharma U, et al. Relief of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy with pregabalin: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Pain 2005;6: 253–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Van Seventer R, Feister HA, Young JP Jr, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily pregabalin for treating pain and related sleep interference in postherpetic neuralgia: a 13-week randomized trial. Curr Med Res Opin 2006;22: 375–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Crofford LJ, Rowbotham MC, Mease PJ, et al. Pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2005;52: 1264–1273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rice AS, Maton S, Postherpetic Neuralgia Study Group. Gabapentin in postherpetic neuralgia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pain 2001;94: 215–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rowbotham M, Harden N, Stacey B, et al. Gabapentin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280: 1837–1842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Backonja M, Beydound A, Edwards KR, et al. Gabapentin for the symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280: 1831–1836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gilron I, Flatters SJ. Gabapentin and pregabalin for the treatment of neuropathic pain: a review of laboratory and clinical evidence. Pain Res Manag 2006;11(suppl A): 16A-29A.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Smith DG, Ehde DM, Hanley MA, et al. Efficacy of gabapentin in treating chronic phantom limb and residual limb pain. J Rehabil Res Dev 2005;42: 645–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mathew NT, Rapoport A, Saper J, et al. Efficacy of gabapentin in migraine prophylaxis. Headache 2001;41: 119–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Dirks J, Fredensborg BB, Christensen D, Fomsgaard JS, Flyger H, Dahl JB. A randomized study of the effects of single-dose gabapentin versus placebo on postoperative pain and morphine consumption after mastectomy. Anesthesiology 2002;97: 560–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Killian JM, Fromm GH. Carbamazepine in the treatment of neuralgia. Use and side effects. Arch Neurol 1968;19: 129–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nicol 1969 CF. A four year double blind study of Tegretol in facial pain. Headache 1969;9: 54–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vilming ST, Lyberg T, Lataste X. Tizanidine in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Cephalgia 1986;6: 181–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lindsrom P, Lindblom U. The analgesic effect of tocainide in trigeminal neuralgia. Pain 1987;28: 45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lechin F, van der Dijs B, Lechin ME, et al. Pimozide therapy for trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol 1989;46: 960–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rull J, Quibrera R, Gonzalez-Millan H, et al. Symptomatic treatment of peripheral diabetic neuropathy with carbamazepine: double-blind crossover study. Diabetologia 1969;5: 215–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Leijon G, Boivie J. Central post-stroke pain- a controlled trial of amitriptyline and carbamazepine. Pain 1989;28: 45–50.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Silberstein SD. Topiramate in migraine prevention. Headache 2005;45(suppl 1): S57–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mathew NT, Kailasam J, Meadors L. Prophylaxis of migraine, transformed migraine and cluster headache with topiramate. Headache 2002;42: 796–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chong MS, Libretto SE. The rationale and use of topiramate for treating neuropathic pain. Clin J Pain 2003;19: 59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Thienel U, Neto W, Schwabe SK, et al. Topiramate in painful diabetic polyneuropathy: findings from three double-blind placebo controlled trials. Acta Neurol Scand 2004;10: 221–231.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Raskin P, Donofrio PD, Rosenthal N, et al. Topiramate vs placebo in painful diabetic neuropathy: analgesic and metabolic effects. Neurology 2004;63: 865–873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Khoromi S, Patsalides A, Parada S, et al. Topiramate in chronic lumbar radicular pain. J Pain 2005;6: 829–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Muehlbacher M, Nickel MK, Kettler C, et al. Topiramate in treatment of patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin J Pain 2006;22: 526–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rothrock JF. Clinical studies of valproate for migraine prophylaxis. Cephalalgia 1997;17: 81–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chadda VS, Mathur M. Double-blind study of the effects of diphenylhydantoin sodium on diabetic neuropathy. J Assoc Physicans India 1978;26: 403–406.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Saudek CD, Wems S, Reidenberg MM. Phenytoin in the treatment of diabetic symmetrical neuropathy. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1977;22: 196–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    McCleane GJ. Intravenous infusion of phenytoin relieves neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Anesth Analg 1999;89: 985–988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Vestergaard K, Andersen G, Gottrup H, et al. Lamotrigine for central poststroke pain: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2001;56: 184–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Simpson DM, McArthur JC, Olney R, et al. Lamotrigine for HIV-associated painful sensory neuropathies: a placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 2003;60: 1508–1514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Zakrzewska JM, Chaudhry Z, Nurmikko TJ, et al. Lamotrigine (Lamictal) in refractory trigeminal neuralgia: results from a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Pain 1997;73: 223–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sindrup SH, Jensen TS. Pharmacotherapy of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin J Pain 2002;18: 22–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Finnerup NB, Sindrup SH, Bach FW, et al. Lamotrigine in spinal cord injury pain: a randomized controlled trial. Pain 2002;96: 375–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    McCleane G. 200mg daily of lamotrigine has no analgesic effect in neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial. Pain 1999;83: 105–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Zakrzewska JM, Pansalos PN. Oxcarbazepine: a new drug in the management of intractable trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52: 472–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Dogra S, Beydoun S, Mazzola J, et al. Oxcarbazepine in painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Pain 2005;9: 543–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health SystemNew Hyde Park
  2. 2.EEG Lab, LIJMCNew Hyde Park

Personalised recommendations