Advertisement

Baiting improves wild boar population size estimates by camera trapping

Abstract

In the last decade, camera trapping has become a widespread technique for wildlife monitoring. Although baits or attractants are commonly used to increase the likelihood of encounter, this practice has been criticised because of the potential biases in the population estimations based on these records obtained by mark-recapture or mark-resight methods, and especially in relative abundance indices (RAI). For two consecutive years, we evaluated the impact of baiting on wild boar (Sus scrofa) population estimates in a protected area of northeast Spain. In particular, we compared the number of boars per independent events (the group size), the estimated population size and RAI between periods with and without baiting. Baiting increased mean group size estimation and the likelihood of an encounter leading to more precise wild boar population estimates. The RAI values both at baited and unbaited campaigns correlated significantly with mark-resight abundance estimates, suggesting that these indices could be used to evaluate the boar population changes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

References

  1. Acevedo, P., Vicente, J., Höfle, U, Cassinello, J., Ruiz-Fons, F., Gortazar, C., 2006. Estimation of European wild boar relative abundance and aggregation: a novel method in epidemiological risk assessment. Epidemiol. Infect. 135, 519–527, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268806007059.

  2. Apollonio, M., Andersen, R., Putman, R., 2010. European Ungulates and Their Management in the 21st Century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

  3. Ballesteros, C., Carrasco-García, R., Vicente, J., Carrasco, J., Lasagna, A., De La Fuente, J., Gortázar, C., 2009. Selective piglet feeders improve age-related bait specificity and uptake rate in overabundant Eurasian wild boar populations. Wildl. Res. 36, 203–212, https://doi.org/10.1071/WR08127.

  4. Bengsen, A., Butler, J., Masters, P., 2011. Estimating and indexing feral cat population abundances using camera traps. Wildl. Res. 38, 732, https://doi.org/10.1071/wr11134.

  5. Bowden, D.C., Kufeld, R.C., 1995. Generalized mark-sight population size estimation applied to colorado moose. J. Wildl. Manage. 59, 840–851, https://doi.org/10.2307/3801965.

  6. Bowler, D.E., Nilsen, E.B., Bischof, R., O’Hara, R.B., Yu, T.T., Oo, T., Aung, M., Linnell, J.D.C., 2019. Integrating data from different survey types for population monitoring of an endangered species: the case of the Eld’s deer. Sci. Rep. 9, 7766, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44075-9.

  7. Burton, A.C., Neilson, E., Moreira, D., Ladle, A., Steenweg, R., Fisher, J.T., Bayne, E., Boutin, S., 2015. Wildlife camera trapping: a review and recommendations for linking surveys to ecological processes. J. Appl. Ecol. 52 (3), 675–685.

  8. Calenge, C., Maillard, D., Fournier, P., Fouque, C., 2004. Efficiency of spreading maize in the garrigues to reduce wild boar (Sus scrofa) damage to Mediterranean vineyards. Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 50, 112–120, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-004-0047-y.

  9. Campbell, T.A., Long, D.B., Lavelle, M.J., Leland, B.R., Blankenship, T.L., VerCauteren, K.C., 2012. Impact of baiting on feral swine behavior in the presence of culling activities. Prev. Vet. Med. 104, 249–257, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2012.01.001.

  10. Carbone, C., Christie, S., Conforti, K., Coulson, T., Franklin, N., Ginsberg, J.R., Griffiths, M., Holden, J., Kawanishi, K., Kinnaird, M., Laidlaw, R., Lynam, A., Macdounal, D.W., Martyr, D., McDougal, C, N.t., L., O’Brien, T., Seidensticker, J., Smith, D.J.L., Sunquist, M., Tilson, R., Wan Shahruddin, W.N., 2001. The use of photographic rates to estimate densities of tigers and other cryptic mammals. Anim. Conserv. 4, 75–79, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943002002172.

  11. Casas-Díaz, E., Closa-Sebastià, F., Peris, A., Miño, À., Torrentó, J., Casanovas, R., Marco, I., Lavín, S., Fernández-Llario, P., Serrano, E., 2013. Recorded dispersal of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Northeast Spain: implications for disease-monitoring programs. Wildl. Biol. Pract. 9, 19–26, https://doi.org/10.2461/wbp.2013.ibeun.3.

  12. Casas-Díaz, E., Peris, A., Serrano, E., Closa-Sebastià, F., Torrentó, J., Miño, À., Casanovas, R., Marco, I., Lavín, S., 2011. Estima de la densidad de una población de jabalí (Sus scrofa) mediante trampeo fotográfico: estudio piloto en Cataluña. Galemys (Spanish J. Mammal.) 23, 99–104.

  13. Cherry, M.J., Conner, L.M., Warren, R.J., 2015. Effects of predation risk and group dynamics on white-tailed deer foraging behavior in a longleaf pine savanna. Behav. Ecol. 26, 1091–1099, https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arv054.

  14. Curtis, P.D., Boldgiv, B., Mattison, P.M., Boulanger, J.R., 2009. Estimating deer abundance in suburban areas with infrared-triggered cameras. Hum.-Wildl. Conflicts 3, 116–128.

  15. Cusack, J.J., Dickman, A.J., Rowcliffe, J.M., Carbone, C., Macdonald, D.W., Coulson, T., 2015. Random versus Game Trail-Based Camera Trap Placement Strategy for Monitoring Terrestrial Mammal Communities. PLoS One 10(5), e0126373, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126373, Published 2015 May 7.

  16. Dougherty, S.Q., Bowman, J.L., 2012. Estimating sika deer abundance using camera surveys. Popul. Ecol. 54, 357–365, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10144-012-0311-z.

  17. du Preez, B.D., Loveridge, A.J., Macdonald, D.W., 2014. To bait or not to bait: a comparison of camera-trapping methods for estimating leopard Panthera pardus density. Biol. Conserv. 176, 153–161, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.05.021.

  18. Edwards, S., Gange, A.C., Wiesel, I., 2016. An oasis in the desert: The potential of water sources as camera trap sites in arid environments for surveying a carnivore guild. J. Arid Environ. 124, 304–309, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.09.009.

  19. Foster, R.J., Harmsen, B.J., 2012. A critique of density estimation from camera-trap data. J. Wildl. Manage. 76, 224–236, https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.275.

  20. Garrote, G., Gil-Sánchez, J.M., McCain, E.B., Lillo, S., Tellerí-a, J.L., Simón, M.A., 2012. The effect of attractant lures in camera trapping: a case study of population estimates forthe Iberian lynx (Lynxpardinus). Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 58, 881–884, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-012-0658-7.

  21. Geisser, H., Reyer, H.U., 2004. Efficacy of hunting, feeding, and fencing to reduce crop damage by wild boars. J. Wildl. Manage. 68, 939–946, https://doi.org/10.2193/0022-541X(2004)068[0939:EOHFAF]2.0.CO;2.

  22. Gerber, B.D., Karpanty, S.M., Kelly, M.J., 2012. Evaluating the potential biases in carnivore capture-recapture studies associated with the use of lure and varying density estimation techniques using photographic-sampling data of the Malagasy civet. Popul. Ecol. 54, 43–54, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10144-011-0276-3.

  23. Hebeisen, C., Fattebert, J., Baubet, E., Fischer, C., 2008. Estimating wild boar(Sus scrofa) abundance and density using capture-resights in Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Eur. J. Wildl. Res., 391–401.

  24. Ibàñez, i., Martí, J.J., Burriel Moreno, J.Á., 2010. Mapa de cubiertas del suelo de Cataluña: características de laterceraedicióny relación conSIOSE. In: Ojeda, J., Pita, M.F., Vallejo, I. (Eds.), Tecnologías de La Información Geográfica: La Información Geográfica Al Servicio de Los Ciudadanos. Secretariado de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, pp. 179–198.

  25. Ivan, J.S., White, G.C., Shenk, T.M., 2013. Using auxiliary telemetry information to estimate animal density from capture-recapture data. Ecology 94, 809–816, https://doi.org/10.1890/12-0101.1.

  26. Jackson, C.H., 2011. Multi-state models for panel data: the msm package for R.J. Stat. Softw. 38, 1–28, https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v038.i08.

  27. Jerina, K., Pokorny, B., Stergar, M., 2014. First evidence of long-distance dispersal of adult female wild boar (Sus scrofa) with piglets. Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 60, 367–370, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-014-0796-1.

  28. Jiménez, J., Rodríguez, C., Moreno, A., 2013. Estima de una población de corzo mediante modelos de captura-recaptura clásicos y espacialmente explícitos. Galemys (Spanish J. Mammal. 25, 1–12.

  29. Keever, A.C., McGowan, C.P., Ditchkoff, S.S., Acker, P.K., Grand, J.B., Newbolt, C.H., 2017. Efficacy of N-mixture models for surveying and monitoring white-tailed deer populations. Mammal Res. 62, 413–422, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-017-0319-z.

  30. Larrucea, E.S., Brussard, P.F., Jaeger, M.M., Barrett, R.H., 2007. Cameras, coyotes, and the assumption of equal detectability. J. Wildl. Manage. 71, 1682–1689, https://doi.org/10.2193/2006-407.

  31. Massei, G., Coats, J., Lambert, M.S., Pietravalle, S., Gill, R., Cowan, D., 2018. Camera traps and activity signs to estimate wild boar density and derive abundance indices. Pest Manag. Sci. 74, 853–860, https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.4763.

  32. Massei, G., Roy, S., Bunting, R., 2011. Too many hogs? A review of methods to mitigate impact by wild boar and feral hogs. Hum.-Wildl. Interact. 5, 79–99.

  33. Matthews, S.M., Golightly, R.T., Higley, J.M., 2008. Mark-resight density estimation for American black bears in Hoopa, California. Ursus 19, 13–21, https://doi.org/10.2192/1537-6176(2008)19[13:MDEFAB]2.0.CO;2.

  34. McClintock, B.T., 2016. Mark-resight models. In: Cooch, E.G., White, G.C. (Eds.), Program MARK- A Gentle Introduction., pp. 18.1–18.43.

  35. McClintock, B.T., White, G.C., Antolin, M.F., Tripp, D.W., 2009. Estimating abundance using mark-resight when sampling is with replacement or the number of marked individuals is unknown. Biometrics 65, 237–246, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2008.01047.x.

  36. McCoy, J.C., Ditchkoff, S.S., Steury, T.D., 2011. Bias associated with baited camera sites for assessing population characteristics of deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 75, 472–477, https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.54.

  37. Meek, P., Fleming, P., Ballard, G., Banks, P., Claridge, A., Sanderson, J., Swann, D. (Eds.), 2014. Camera Trapping: Wildlife Management and Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Victoria.

  38. Meng, X.J., Lindsay, D.S., Sriranganathan, N., 2009. Wild boars as sources for infectious diseases in livestock and humans. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 364, 2697–2707, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0086.

  39. Minuartia, 2016. Programa de seguiment de les poblacions de senglar (Sus scrofa) a Catalunya. Temporada 2015/2016.

  40. Nichols, J.D., O’Connell, A.F., Karanth, K.U., 2011. Camera traps in animal ecology and conservation: what’s next? In: O’Connell, A.F., Nichols, J.D., Karanth, K.U. (Eds.), Camera Traps in Animal Ecology. Springer, Japan, Tokyo, pp. 253–263, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-99495-4_14.

  41. O’Brien, T.G., 2011. Abundance, density and relative abundance: a conceptual framework. In: Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer, Japan, Tokyo, pp. 71–96, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-99495-4_6.

  42. O’Brien, T.G., Kinnaird, M.F., Wibisono, H.T., 2003. Crouching tigers, hidden prey: sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Anim. Conserv. 6, 131–139, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943003003172.

  43. O’Connell, A.F., Nichols, J.D., Karanth, K.U., 2011. Introduction. In: O’Connel, A.F., Nichols, J.D., Karanth, K.U. (Eds.), Camera Traps in Animal Ecology. Springer, Japan, Tokyo, pp. 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-99495-41.

  44. Palmer, M.S., Swanson, A., Kosmala, M., Arnold, T., Packer, C., 2018. Evaluating relative abundance indices for terrestrial herbivores from large-scale camera trap surveys. Afr.J. Ecol. 56, 791–803, https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12566.

  45. Parsons, A.W., Simons, T.R., Pollock, K.H., Stoskopf, M.K., Stocking, J.J., O’Connell, A.F., 2015. Camera traps and mark-resight models: the value of ancillary data for evaluating assumptions. J. Wildl. Manage. 79, 1163–1172, https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.931.

  46. Powell, L.A., 2007. Approximating variance of demographic parameters using the delta method: a reference for avian biologists. Condor 109, 949, https://doi.org/10.1650/0010-5422(2007)109[949:avodpu]2.0.co;2.

  47. R Core Team, 2017. R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Rich, L.N., Kelly, M.J., Sollmann, R., Noss, A.J., Maffei, L., Arispe, R.L., Paviolo, A., De Angelo, C.D., Di Blanco, Y.E., Di Bitetti, M.S., 2014. Comparing capture-recapture, mark-resight, and spatial mark-resight models for estimating puma densities via camera traps. J. Mammal. 95, 382–391, https://doi.org/10.1644/13-mamm-a-126.

  48. Rovero, F., Marshall, A.R., 2009. Camera trapping photographic rate as an index of density in forest ungulates. J. Appl. Ecol. 46, 1011–1017, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01705.x.

  49. Rowcliffe, J.M., Carbone, C., 2008. Surveys using camera traps: are we looking to a brighter future? Anim. Conserv. 11 (3), 185–186, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00180.x.

  50. Rowcliffe, J.M., Field, J., Turvey, S.T., Carbone, C., 2008. Estimating animal density using camera traps without the need for individual recognition. J. Appl. Ecol. 45, 1228–1236, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01473.x.

  51. Sollmann, R., 2018. A gentle introduction to camera-trap data analysis. Afr. J. Ecol. 56, 740–749, https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12557.

  52. Sollmann, R., Mohamed, A., Samejima, H., Wilting, A., 2013. Risky business or simple solution - Relative abundance indices from camera-trapping. Biol. Conserv. 159, 405–412, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.12.025.

  53. Soofi, M., Ghoddousi, A., Hamidi, A.K., Ghasemi, B., Egli, L., Voinopol-Sassu, A.J., Kiabi, B.H., Balkenhol, N., Khorozyan, I., Waltert, M., 2017. Precision and reliability of indirect population assessments for the Caspian red deer Cervus elaphus maral. Wildl. Biol. 2017, wlb.00230, https://doi.org/10.2981/wlb.00230.

  54. Sparklin, B.D., Mitchell, M.S., Hanson, L.B., Jolley, D.B., Ditchkoff, S.S., 2009. Territoriality of feral pigs in a highly persecuted population on Fort Benning, Georgia. J. Wildl. Manage. 73, 497–502, https://doi.org/10.2193/2007-585.

  55. Swann, D.E., Perkins, N., 2014. Camera trapping for animal monitoring andmanagement: a review of applications. In: Meek, P., Flemign, P., Ballard, G., Banks, P., Claridge, A., Sanderson, J., Swann, D. (Eds.), Camera Trapping: Wildlife Management and Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Victoria, pp. 3–11.

  56. Sweitzer, R.A., Van Vuren, D., Gardner, I.A., Boyce, W.M., Waithman, J.D., 2000. Estimating sizes of wild pig populations in the North and Central coast regions of California. J. Wildl. Manage. 64, 531–543.

  57. Villette, P., Krebs, C.J., Jung, T.S., 2017. Evaluating camera traps as an alternative to live trapping for estimating the density of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 63, 7, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-016-1064-3.

  58. Villette, P., Krebs, C.J., Jung, T.S., Boonstra, R., 2016. Can camera trapping provide accurate estimates of small mammal (Myodes rutilus and Peromyscus maniculatus) density in the boreal forest? J. Mammal. 97, 32–40, https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyv150.

  59. White, G.C., Burnham, K.P., 1999. Program mark: survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study 46, S120–S139, https://doi.org/10.1080/00063659909477239.

  60. Williams, B.L., Holtfreter, R.W., Ditchkoff, S.S., Grand, J.B., 2011. Efficiency of time-lapse intervals and simple baits for camera surveys of wild pigs. J. Wildl. Manage. 75, 655–659, https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.75.

  61. Yasuda, M., 2004. Monitoring diversity and abundance of mammals with camera traps: a case study on Mount Tsukuba, central Japan. Mammal Study, 37–46.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Albert Peris.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Peris, A., Closa-Sebastià, F., Marco, I. et al. Baiting improves wild boar population size estimates by camera trapping. Mamm Biol 98, 28–35 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2019.07.005

Download citation

Keywords

  • Mark-resight
  • Population estimation
  • Relative abundance index
  • Sus scrofa
  • Wildlife monitoring