Advertisement

Mammalian Biology

, Volume 80, Issue 4, pp 290–297 | Cite as

Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

  • Maximiliano SepúlvedaEmail author
  • Katherine Pelican
  • Paul Cross
  • Antonieta Eguren
  • Randall Singer
Original Investigation

Abstract

Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (<200 m) but exhibited a diurnal pattern of directed excursions (forays) away from their home locations. Dogs spent, on average, 5.3% of their time in forays with average per dog foray distances from the house ranging 0.5–1.9 km (maximum distance detected 4.3 km). Foraying behavior was positively associated with pasture habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

Keywords

Canis familiaris Domestic dog Habitat use Protected lands Rural communities 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aebischer, N.J., Robertson, PA, Kenward, R.E., 1993. Compositional analysis of habitat use from animal radio-tracking data. Ecology 74, 1313–1325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alaback, P.B., 1991. Comparative ecology of temperate rainforests of the Americas along analogous climatic gradients. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 64, 399–412.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, K.A., Appel, M.J., 1994. African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) endangered by a canine distemper epizootic among domestic dogs nearthe Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. J. Wildlife Dis. 30, 481–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andam, K.S., Ferraro, P.J., Sims, K.R., Healy, A., Holland, M.B., 2010. Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 9996–10001.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atickem, A., Bekele, A., Williams, S.D., 2009. Competition between domestic dogs and Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. Afr. J. Ecol. 48, 401–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baland, J.–M., Platteau, J.–P., 1996. Halting Degradation of Natural Resources: Is There a Role for Rural Communities? Food & Agriculture Organization, Oxford.Google Scholar
  7. Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, R.A., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gerlach, J., Hoffmann, M., Lamoreux, J.F., Mittermeier, C.G., Pilgrim, J.D., Rodrigues, A.S.L., 2006. Global biodiversity conservation priorities. Science 313, 58–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Butler, J., Bingham, J., 2000. Demography and dog-human relationships of the dog population in Zimbabwean communal lands. Vet. Rec. 147, 442–446.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Butler, J.R.A., du Toit, J.T., 2002. Diet of free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in rural Zimbabwe: implications forwild scavengers on the periphery of wildlife reserves. Anim. Conserv. 5, 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butler, J.R.A., du Toit, J.T., Bingham, J., 2004. Free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) as predators and prey in rural Zimbabwe: threats of competition and disease to large wild carnivores. Biol. Conserv. 115, 369–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Calenge, C, 2006. The package “adehabitat” for the R software: a tool for the analysis of space and habitat use by animals. Ecol. Model. 197, 516–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cleaveland, S., Appel, M.G.J., Chalmers, W.S.K., Chillingworth, C, Kaare, M., Dye, C, 2000. Serological and demographic evidence for domestic dogs as a source of canine distemper virus infection for Serengeti wildlife. Vet. Microbiol. 72, 217–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalla Villa, P., Kahn, S., Stuardo, L, Iannetti, L, Di Nardo, A., Serpell, J.A., 2010. Free-roaming dog control among OIE-member countries. Prev. Vet. Med. 97 (1), 58–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dovie, D.B., Shackleton, CM., Witkowski, E., 2006. Valuation of communal area livestock benefits, rural livelihoods and related policy issues. Land Use Policy 23, 260–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunstone, N., Durbin, L, Wyllie, I., Freer, R., Jamett, G.A., Mazzolli, M., Rose, S., 2002. Spatial organization, ranging behaviour and habitat use of the kodkod (Oncifelis guigna) in southern Chile. J. Zool. 257, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Espinosa, M., 2012. Dietay usode hábitat del huillín(Lontra provocax)enambientes de agua dulce y su relación con comunidades locales en el bosque templado llu-vioso, Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile. Universidad Mayor, Santiago de Chile, Chile, pp. 86.Google Scholar
  17. Farías, A., Sepúlveda, M., Silva-Rodríguez, E., Eguren, A., González, D., Jordán, N., Ovando, E., Stowhas, P., Svensson, G., 2014. A new population of the Darwin’s fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) in the Valdivian Coastal Range. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 87, 3.Google Scholar
  18. Ferreira,J.P., Leitão, I., Santos-Reis, M., Revilla, E., 2011. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation. PLoS ONE 6, e25970.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fiorello, C.V., Noss, A.J., Deem, S.L., 2006. Demography, hunting ecology, and pathogen exposure of domestic dogs in the Isoso of Bolivia. Conserv. Biol. 20, 762–771.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Funk, S., Fiorello, C, Cleaveland, S., Gompper, M., 2001. The role of disease in carnivore ecology and conservation. In: Gittleman, J.L., Funk, S., Macdon-ald, D., Wayne, R. (Eds.), Carnivore Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 443–466.Google Scholar
  21. Gehring, T.M., VerCauteren, K.C., Landry, J.M., 2010. Livestock protection dogs in the 21st century: is an ancient tool relevant to modern conservation challenges? Bioscience 60, 299–308.Google Scholar
  22. Gompper, M.E., 2013. The dog–human–wildlife interface: assessing the scope of the problem. In: Gompper, M.E. (Ed.), Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 9–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. González, A., Novaro, A., Funes, M., Pailacura, O., Bolgeri, M.J., Walker, S., 2012. Mixed-breed guarding dogs reduce conflict between goat herders and native carnivores in Patagonia. Human Wildlife Interact. 6, 134–141.Google Scholar
  24. Hughes, J., Macdonald, D.W., 2013. A review of the interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs and wildlife. Biol. Conserv. 157, 341–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jiménez, J., 2007. Ecology of a coastal population of the critically endangered Darwin’s fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes) on Chiloé Island, southern Chile. J. Zool. 271, 63–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johnson, D.H., 1980. The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preference. Ecology 61, 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Joppa, L.N., Pfaff, A., 2009. High and far: biases in the location of protected areas. PLoS ONE 4, e8273.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Koster,J., 2008. The impact of hunting with dogs on wildlife harvests in the Bosawas Reserve, Nicaragua. Environ. Conserv. 35, 211–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kruuk, H., Snell, H., 1981. Prey selection by feral dogs from a population of marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).J. Appl. Ecol. 18, 197–204.Google Scholar
  30. Lacerda, A.C.R., Tomas, W.M., Marinho, J., 2009. Domestic dogs as an edge effect in the Brasilia National Park, Brazil: interactions with native mammals. Anim. Conserv. 12, 477–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MacFarland, C.G., Villa, J., Toro, B., 1974. The Galápagos giant tortoises (Geoche-lone elephantopus). Part I: Status of the surviving populations. Biol. Conserv. 6, 118–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Maestas, J.D., Knight, R.L., Gilgert, W.C., 2003. Biodiversity across a rural land-use gradient. Conserv. Biol. 17, 1425–1434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Naughton-Treves, L, Holland, M.B., Brandon, K., 2005. The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 30, 219–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ordeñana, M.A., Crooks, K.R., Boydston, E.E., Fisher, R.N., Lyren, L.M., Siudyla, S., Haas, CD., Harris, S., Hathaway, S.A., Turschak, G.M., 2010. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness. J. Mammal. 91, 1322–1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Parsons, M.B., Gillespie, T.R., Lonsdorf, E.V., Travis, D., Lipende, I., Gilagiza, B., Kamenya, S., Pintea, L, Vazquez-Prokopec, G.M., 2014. Global positioning system data-loggers: a tool to quantify fine-scale movement of domestic animals to evaluate potential for zoonotic transmission to an endangered wildlife population. PLOS ONE 9, e110984.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pita, R., Mira, A., Moreira, F., Morgado, R., Beja, P., 2009. Influence of landscape characteristics on carnivore diversity and abundance in Mediterranean farmland. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 132, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. R Development Core Team, 2011. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, 2.14.0 ed. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  38. Rigg, R., 2001. Livestock Guarding Dogs: Their Current Use World Wide. IUCN Canid Specialist Group.Google Scholar
  39. Roelke Parker, M.E., Munson, L., Packer, C, Kock, R., Cleaveland, S., Carpenter, M., O’Brien, S.J., Pospischil, A., Hofman Lehmann, R., Lutz, H., Mwamengele, G.L.M., Mgasa, M.N., Machange, G.A., Summers, B.A., Appel, M.J.G., 1996. A canine distemper virus epidemic inSerengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature 379, 441–445.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Ruiz-Izaguirre, E., Woersem, A., Eilers, K., Wieren, S., Bosch, G., Zijpp, A., Boer, I., 2014. Roaming characteristics and feeding practices of village dogs scavenging sea-turtle nests. Anim. Conserv., https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.1214310.1111/acv.12143
  41. Seaman, D.E., Powell, R.A., 1996. An evaluation of the accuracy of kernel density estimators for home range analysis. Ecology 77, 2075–2085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sepúlveda, M., Bartheld, J.L., Monsalve, R., Gómez, V., Medina-Vogel, G., 2007. Habitat use and spatial behaviour of the endangered Southern river otter (Lontra provocax) in riparian habitats of Chile: conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 140, 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sepúlveda, M., Silva-Rodríguez, E., 2012. Diagnóstico sobre la presencia de especies invasoras y sus amenazas en áreas representativas del SNASPE, Región de Los Ríos. CONAF, Valdivia, Chile.Google Scholar
  44. Sepúlveda, M.A., Singer, R., Silva-Rodríguez, E., Stowhas, P., Pelican, K., 2014a. Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution? PLOS ONE 9 (1), e86152, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.008615210.1371/journal.pone.0086152
  45. Sepúlveda, M.A., Singer, R.S., Silva-Rodríguez, E., Eguren, A., Stowhas, P., Pelican, K., 2014b. Invasive American mink: linking pathogen risk between domestic and endangered carnivores. EcoHealth, 1–11.Google Scholar
  46. Shackleton, S., Shackleton, C, Netshiluvhi, T., Geach, B., Ballance, A., Fairbanks, D., 2002. Use patterns and value of savanna resources in three rural villages in South Africa. Econ. Bot. 56, 130–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sillero Zubiri, C, Macdonald, D.W., King, A.A., 1996. Rabies and mortality in Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis).J. Wildlife Dis. 32, 80–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Silva-Rodriguez, E.A., Sieving, K.E., 2011. Influence of care of domestic carnivores on their predation on vertebrates. Conserv. Biol. 25, 808–815.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Silva-Rodríguez, E.A., Sieving, K.E., 2012. Domestic dogs shape the landscape-scale distribution of a threatened forest ungulate. Biol. Conserv. 150, 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Taborsky, M., 1988. Kiwis and dog predation: observations in Waitangi State Forest. Notornis35, 197–202.Google Scholar
  51. Vanak, A., Gompper, M., 2009a. Dietary niche separation between sympatric free-ranging domestic dogs and Indian foxes in central India. J. Mammal. 90, 1058–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vanak, A.T., Gompper, M.E., 2009b. Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competition. Mammal Rev. 39, 265–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vanak, A.T., Gompper, M.E., 2010. Interference competition at the landscape level: the effect of free-ranging dogs on a native mesocarnivore. J. Appl. Ecol. 47, 1225–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Waters-Bayer, A., Bayer, W., 1992. The role of livestock in the rural economy. Nomadic Peoples 31, 3–18.Google Scholar
  55. Williams, E.S., Thorne, E.T., Appel, M.J., Belitsky, D.W., 1988. Canine distemper in black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) from Wyoming. J. Wildlife Dis. 24, 385–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wittemyer, G., Elsen, P., Bean, W.T., Burton, A.C.O., Brashares, J.S., 2008. Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science 321, 123–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Woodroffe, R., Donnelly, C.A., 2011. Risk of contact between endangered African wild dogs Lycaonpictus and domestic dogs: opportunities for pathogen transmission. J. Appl. Ecol. 48, 1345–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Worton, B.J., 1989. Kernel methods for estimating the utilization distribution in home-range studies. Ecology 70, 164–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Young, J.K., Olson, K.A., Reading, R.P., Amgalanbaatar, S., Berger, J., 2011. Is wildlife going to the dogs? Impacts of feral and free-roaming dogs on wildlife populations. Bioscience 61, 125–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maximiliano Sepúlveda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katherine Pelican
    • 1
  • Paul Cross
    • 2
  • Antonieta Eguren
    • 3
  • Randall Singer
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Geological SurveyNorthern Rocky Mountain Science CenterBozemanUSA
  3. 3.Center for Latin American Studies & Center for African StudiesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Instituto de Medicina Preventiva Veterinaria, Facultad de Ciencias VeterinariasUniversidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile

Personalised recommendations