Advertisement

Mammalian Biology

, Volume 80, Issue 1, pp 7–13 | Cite as

Differential responses of large mammals to logging and edge effects

  • Jedediah F. BrodieEmail author
  • Anthony J. Giordano
  • Laurentius Ambu
Original Investigation

Abstract

Selective logging is one of the most widespread disturbances to tropical forests worldwide, yet its impacts on large mammals remain poorly understood. We used camera trapping and hierarchical models to compare local abundance of a variety of terrestrial mammal species in Borneo between selectively logged and unlogged forest, and to assess the impacts of edge effects. Our methods circumvent confounding factors that have plagued previous assessments of logging impacts by explicitly accounting for differential detection probability among habitats, separating the effects of hunting from those of logging-induced habitat disturbance, and explicitly measuring the distances over which edge effects occur. We found that mammalian carnivore species were either largely or completely confined to primary forest, although habitat use for the Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) increased toward the ecotone. Several large ungulates, however, were either completely (elephant Elephas maximus and banteng Bos javanicus) or mostly (sambar Rusa unicolor) found in logged forest. This suggests that, in the absence of hunting, disturbed habitats can be important for the conservation of certain endangered and vulnerable species. Sambar and muntjac (Muntiacus spp.) both strongly avoided habitat edge in logged forest and primary forest, respectively. Lower habitat use by these species persisted 2–4 km from the habitat boundary — farther than has been observed for the infiltration of other edge effects such as canopy desiccation. Such avoidance of ecotones implies that 20–40% of the intact primary forest habitat in our study area is actually degraded “edge habitat” from the point of view of primary forest specialists. Our results suggest that, while selectively logged forests retain conservation value for certain large mammal species, it is critical that thresholds in logging intensity be identified so as to avoid declines in habitat use by taxa, such as carnivores, which appear intolerant of intensive logging pressure.

Keywords

Habitat disturbance Habitat selection Mammal conservation Southeast Asia Tropical rainforest 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asner, G.P., Knapp, D.E., Broadbent, E.N., Oliveira, P.J.C., Keller, M., Silva, J.N., 2005. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 310, 480–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azlan, J.M., Sharma, D.S., 2006. The diversity and activity patterns of wild felids in a secondary forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Oryx 40, 36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow, J., Peres, C.A., Henriques, L.M.P., Stouffer, P.C., Wunderle, J.M., 2006. The responses of understorey birds to forest fragmentation, logging and wildfires: an Amazonian synthesis. Biol. Conserv. 128, 182–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Briant, G., Gond, V., Laurance, S.G.W., 2010. Habitat fragmentation and the desiccation of forest canopies: a case study from eastern Amazonia. Biol. Conserv. 143, 2763–2769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Broadbent, E.N., Asner, G.P., Keller, M., Knapp, D.E., Oliveira, P.J.C., Silva, J.N., 2008. Forest fragmentation and edge effects from deforestation and selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon. Biol. Conserv. 141, 1745–1757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brodie, J., Giordano, A.J., 2012. Density of the Vulnerable Sunda clouded leopard Neofelis diardi in a protected area in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Oryx 46, 427–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brodie, J.F., Helmy, O.E., Brockelman, W.Y., Maron, J.L., 2009. Bushmeat poaching reduces the seed dispersal and population growth rate of a mammal-dispersed tree. Ecol. Appl. 19, 854–863.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapin, F.S., Zavaleta, E.S., Eviner, V.T., Naylor, R.L., Vitousek, P.M., Reynolds, H.L., Hooper, D.U., Lavorel, S., Sala, O.E., Hobbie, S.E., Mack, M.C., Diaz, S., 2000. Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405, 234–242.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Chapman, C.A., Balcomb, S.R., Gillespie, T.R., Skorupa, J.P., Struhsaker, T.T., 2000. Long-term effects of logging on African primate communities: a 28-year comparison from Kibale National Park, Uganda. Conserv. Biol. 14, 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke, F.M., Rostant, L.V., Racey, P.A., 2005. Life after logging: post-logging recovery of a neotropical bat community. J. Appl. Ecol. 42, 409–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colon, C.P., 2002. Ranging behaviour and activity of the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga) in a logged and an unlogged forest in Danum Valley, East Malaysia. J. Zool. 257, 473–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Costa, F., Magnusson, W., 2002. Selective logging effects on abundance, diversity, and composition of tropical understory herbs. Ecol. Appl. 12, 807–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curran, L.M., Trigg, S.N., McDonald, A.K., Astiani, D., Hardiono, Y.M., Siregar, P., Caniago, I., Kasischke, E., 2004. Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo. Science 303, 1000–1003.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Datta, A., 1998. Hornbill abundance in unlogged forest, selectively logged forest and a forest plantation in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Oryx 32, 285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Datta, A., Goyal, S.P., 2008. Responses of diurnal tree squirrels to selective logging in western Arunachal Pradesh. Curr. Sci. 95, 895–902.Google Scholar
  16. Dirzo, R., Raven, P.H., 2003. Global state of biodiversity and loss. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28, 137–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Duff, A.B., Hall, R.A., Marsh, C.W., 1984. A survey of wildlife in and around a commercial tree plantation in Sabah. Malays. For. 47, 197–213.Google Scholar
  18. Dumbrell, A.J., Hill, J.K., 2005. Impacts of selective logging on canopy and ground assemblages of tropical forest butterflies: implications for sampling. Biol. Conserv. 125, 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ernst, R., Konrad, T., Linsenmair, K.E., Rodel, M.O., 2007. The impacts of selective logging on three sympatric species of Leptodactylus in a Central Guyana rainforest. Amphibia-Reptilia 28, 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eyre,T.J., Maron, M., Mathieson, M.T., Haseler, M., 2009. Impacts of grazing, selective logging and hyper-aggressors on diurnal bird fauna in intact forest landscapes of the Brigalow Belt, Queensland. Austral Ecol. 34, 705–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fredericksen, N.J., Fredericksen, T.S., 2004. Impacts of selective logging on amphibians in a Bolivian tropical humid forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 191, 275–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gerber, B., Karpanty, S.M., Crawford, C., Kotschwar, M., Randianantenaina, J., 2010. An assessment of carnivore relative abundance and density in the eastern rainforests of Madagascar using remotely-triggered camera traps. Oryx 44, 219–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gray, M.A., Baldauf, S.L., Mayhew, P.J., Hill, J.K., 2007. The response of avian feeding guilds to tropical forest disturbance. Conserv. Biol. 21, 133–141.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z., Sinum, W., 2004. Maliau Basin. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.Google Scholar
  25. Heydon, M.J., 1994. The Ecology and Management of Rain Forest Ungulates in Sabah, Malaysia: Implications of Forest Disturbance. Final report to Institute of Tropical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland.Google Scholar
  26. Heydon, M.J., Bulloh, P., 1996. The impact of selective logging on sympatric civet species in Borneo. Oryx 30, 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Heydon, M.J., Bulloh, P., 1997. Mousedeer densities in a tropical rainforest: the impact of selective logging. J. Appl. Ecol. 34, 484–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IUCN, 2009. Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. https://doi.org/www.iucnredlist.org (accessed October 2013).
  29. Kier, G., Kreft, H., Lee, T.M., Jetz, W., Ibisch, P.L., Nowicki, C., Mutke, J., Barthlott, W., 2009. A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106, 9322–9327.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kinnaird, M.F., Sanderson, E.W., O’Brien, T.G., Wibisono, H.T., Woolmer, G., 2003. Deforestation trends in a tropical landscape and implications for endangered large mammals. Conserv. Biol. 17, 245–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lacerda, A.C.R., Tomas, W.M., Marinho, J., 2009. Domestic dogs as an edge effect in the Brasilia National Park, Brazil: interactions with native mammals. Anim. Conserv. 12, 477–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lambert, T.D., Malcolm, J.R., Zimmerman, B.L., 2005. Effects of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) logging on small mammal communities, habitat structure, and seed predation in the southeastern Amazon Basin. For. Ecol. Manage. 206, 381–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Langer, A., Miettinen, J., Siegert, F., 2007. Land cover change 2002–2005 in Borneo and the role of fire derived from MODIS imagery. Global Change Biol. 13, 2329–2340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Laurance, W.F., Camargo, J.L.C., Luizao, R.C.C., Laurance, S.G., Pimm, S.L., Bruna, E.M., Stouffer, P.C., Williamson, G.B., Benitez-Malvido, J., Vasconcelos, H.L., Van Houtan, K.S., Zartman, C.E., Boyle, S.A., Didham, R.K., Andrade, A., Lovejoy, T.E., 2011. The fate of Amazonian forest fragments: a 32-year investigation. Biol. Conserv. 144, 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lewis, O.T., 2001. Effect of experimental selective logging on tropical butterflies. Conserv. Biol. 15, 389–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lim, B.L., 1999. The distribution, food habits and parasite patterns of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Peninsular Malaysia. J. Wildl. Natl. Parks 17, 17–27.Google Scholar
  37. Linkie, M., Haidir, W.A., Nugroho, A., Dinata, Y., 2008. Conserving tigers Panthera tigris in selectively logged Sumatran forests. Biol. Conserv. 141, 2410–2415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. MacKenzie, D.I., Nichols, J.D., Sutton, N., Kawanishi, K., Bailey, L.L., 2005. Improving inferences in population studies of rare species that are detected imperfectly. Ecology 86, 1101–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Meijaard, E., Sheil, D., 2008. The persistence and conservation of Borneo’s mammals in lowland rain forests managed for timber: observations, overviews and opportunities. Ecol. Res. 23, 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Meijaard, E., Sheil, D., Marshall, A.J., Nasi, R., 2008. Phylogenetic age is positively correlated with sensitivity to timber harvest in Bornean mammals. Biotropica 40, 76–85.Google Scholar
  41. Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bennett, E.L., Meat, S.C.BAm.W., 2003. Wild meat: the bigger picture. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18, 351–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J., 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mykura, H.F., 1989. Hydrology, geomorphology and erosion potential. In: March, C.W. (Ed.), Expedition to Maliau Basin, Sabah, April–May 1988. Final Report. Yayasan Sabah and World Wildlife Fund for Nature Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu, pp. 64–75.Google Scholar
  44. Norris, D., Peres, C.A., Michalski, F., Hinchsliffe, K., 2008. Terrestrial mammal responses to edges in Amazonian forest patches: a study based on track stations. Mammalia 72, 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nummelin, N., 1990. Relative habitat use of duikers, bush pigs, and elephants in virgin and selectively logged areas of the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Trop. Zool. 3, 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. O’Brien, T.G., Kinnaird, M.F., Wibisono, H.T., 2003. Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Anim. Conserv. 6, 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ochoa, J., 2000. Effects of logging on small-mammal diversity in the lowland forests of the Venezuelan Guyana region. Biotropica 32, 146–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Owen-Smith, R.N., 1992. Megaherbivores: The Influence of Very Large Body Size on Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  49. Peters, S.L., Malcolm, J.R., Zimmerman, B.L., 2006. Effects of selective logging on bat communities in the southeastern Amazon. Conserv. Biol. 20, 1410–1421.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Poulsen, J.R., Clark, C.J., Bolker, B.M., 2011. Decoupling the effects of logging and hunting on an Afrotropical animal community. Ecol. Appl. 21, 1819–1836.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Robinson, J.G., Redford, K.H., Bennett, E.L., 1999. Wildlife harvest in logged tropical forests. Science 284, 595–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Royle, J.A., Nichols, J.D., 2003. Estimating abundance from repeated presenceabsence data or point counts. Ecology 84, 777–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Salek, M., Kreisinger, J., Sedlacek, F., Albrecht, T., 2010. Do prey densities determine preferences of mammalian predators for habitat edges in an agricultural landscape? Landsc. Urban Plann. 98, 86–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sampaio, R., Lima, A.P., Magnusson, W.E., Peres, C.A., 2010. Long-term persistence of midsized to large-bodied mammals in Amazonian landscapes under varying contexts of forest cover. Biodivers. Conserv. 19, 2421–2439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Santos, B.A., Arroyo-Rodriguez, V., Moreno, C.E., Tabarelli, M., 2010. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic Forest. PLoS One 5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vetter, D., Hansbauer, M.M.,Vegvari, Z., Storch, I., 2011. Predictors of forest fragmentation sensitivity in Neotropical vertebrates: a quantitative review. Ecography 34, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vieira, D.L.M., Scariot, A., Holl, K.D., 2007. Effects of habitat, cattle grazing and selective logging on seedling survival and growth in dry forests of Central Brazil. Biotropica 39, 269–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jedediah F. Brodie
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Anthony J. Giordano
    • 4
  • Laurentius Ambu
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Beaty Biodiversity Research CentreUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  4. 4.Department of Natural Resources ManagementTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  5. 5.Sabah Wildlife DepartmentIbu Pejabat Tingkat 5Kota KinabaluMalaysia

Personalised recommendations