Mammalian Biology

, Volume 76, Issue 5, pp 592–607 | Cite as

Geographic variation in South American populations of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821) (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), with the description of two new species

  • Ricardo MoratelliEmail author
  • Adriano L. Peracchi
  • Daniela Dias
  • João A. de Oliveira
Original Investigation


The genus Myotis (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) comprises a diverse group of small to large-sized vespertilionid bats that present a worldwide distribution. Twelve South American species are currently recognized. In this paper we evaluate the morphological and morphometric variation observed in South American populations of the most widespread species, Myotis nigricans. Against this background, two forms can be morphologically distinguished from M. nigricans and other known South American species. We describe these new species, documenting their diagnostic external and cranial characters by comparing them to other sympatric and cryptic species of South American Myotis. In addition, we provide an emended diagnosis of Myotis nigricans.


Myotinae South America Taxonomy Morphometrics Morphology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnone, I.S., Passos, F.C., 2007. Estrutura de comunidade da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, Chiroptera) do Parque Estadual de Campinhos, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 24, 573–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barquez, R.M., Mares, M.A., Braun, J.K., 1999. The bats of Argentina. Special Publication of Texas Tech University and the Oklahoma Museum of Natural History 42, 1–275.Google Scholar
  3. Baud, F.J., 1979. Myotis aelleni, nov. spec., chauve-souris nouvelle d’Argentine (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 86, 267–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baud, F.J., Menu, H., 1993. Paraguayan bats of the genus Myotis, with a redefinition of Myotis simus (Thomas, 1901). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100, 595–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bornholdt, R., Oliveira, L.R., Fábian, M.E., 2008. Size and shape variability in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from two geographic areas in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 68, 623–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dias, D., Peracchi, A.L., 2008. Quirópteros da Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 25, 333–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gardner, A.L., 2008. Mammals of South America. Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews and Bats. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Handley Jr., C.O., 1960. Descriptions of new bats from Panama. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 112, 459–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, England.Google Scholar
  10. LaVal, R.K., 1973. A revision of the neotropical bats of the genus Myotis. Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County. Science Bulletin 15, 1–54.Google Scholar
  11. Little, R.J.A., Rubin, D.B., 1987. Statistical Analysis with Missing Data. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  12. López-González, C., Presley, S.J., Owen, R.D., Willig, M.R., 2001. Taxonomic status of Myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Paraguay. Journal of Mammalogy 82 (1), 138–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. López-González, C., 2005. Murciélagos de Paraguay. Biosfera 9, 1–316.Google Scholar
  14. Manly, B.F., 1994. Multivariate Statistical Methods, A Primer. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  15. Miller, G.S., Allen, G.M., 1928. The American bats of the genera Myotis and Pizonyx. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 144, 1–128.Google Scholar
  16. Moratelli, R., 2008. Revisão das espécies de Myotis Kaup, 1829 do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae): uma abordagem morfológica e morfométrica. PhD Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  17. Neff, N.A., Marcus, L.F., 1980. A Survey of Multivariate Methods for Systematics. Private Published, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Ridgway, R., 1912. Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. Privately Published, Washington, DC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schinz, H.R., 1821. Das tierreich eingetheilt nach dem Bau der thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von dem Herrn Ritter von Cuvier. Saugethiere und Vögel, Stuttgart and Tübingen.Google Scholar
  20. Simmons, N.B., 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: Wilson, D.E., Reeder, D.M. (Eds.), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference., 3rd edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 312–529.Google Scholar
  21. Strauss, R.E., 2010. Discriminating groups of organisms. In: Elewa, A.M.T. (Ed.), Morphometrics for Nonmorphometricians, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, vol. 124. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 73–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Strauss, R.E., Atanassov, M.N., Oliveira, J.A., 2003. Evaluation of the principal-component and the expectation-maximization methods for estimating missing data in morphometric studies. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23, 284–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Thomas, O., 1901. New Myotis, Artibeus, Sylvilagus and Metachirus from South America. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 7 (7), 189–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thomas, O., 1902. On Azara’s “Chauve-souris onzieme” (Myotis ruber, Geoff.) and a new species allied to it. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 10 (7), 494–495.Google Scholar
  25. Wilson, D.E., 2008. Genus Myotis Kaup 1829. In: Gardner, A.L. (Ed.), Mammals of South America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, pp. 468–481.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricardo Moratelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Adriano L. Peracchi
    • 2
  • Daniela Dias
    • 3
  • João A. de Oliveira
    • 4
  1. 1.Campus Fiocruz da Mata AtlânticaFundação Oswaldo CruzRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de BiologiaUniversidade Federal Rural do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto Oswaldo CruzFundação Oswaldo CruzRio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Vertebrados, Museu NacionalUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations