Polyelectrolytes as new matrices for secondary ion mass spectrometry

  • Yit-Yian Lua
  • Li Yang
  • Craig A. Pew
  • Feng Zhang
  • W. Jonathan
  • J. Fillmore
  • R. Todd Bronson
  • Amarchand Sathyapalan
  • Paul B. Savage
  • Jed D. Whittaker
  • Robert C. Davis
  • Matthew R. Linford
Articles

Abstract

Significant enhancements in ion yields in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) are observed when water-soluble analytes are mixed with a polyelectrolyte, e.g., poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), and then deposited in the layer-by-layer method on a surface. This previously unobserved effect is demonstrated for 5-chloro-8-methoxyquinoline appended diaza-18-crown-6, 5-(2-aminoethoxy)methyl-5-chloro-8-methoxyquinoline appended diaza-18-crown-6, acridine, 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid, and ferrocenecarboxylic acid. By optical ellipsometry film thicknesses range from ca. 5–20 Å. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows significantly less analyte in the polyelectrolyte-analyte films than in the neat analytes. However, TOF-SIMS generally shows significant enhancements in ion yields from the polyelectrolyte films compared with either the neat compounds or the compounds solubilized with acid or base and then dried on a surface. These significant enhancements in ion yields also appear to extend to analyte fragments and cationized molecular species. Some enhancement is also observed for dried droplets of analytes mixed with a polyelectrolyte on surfaces.

References

  1. 1.
    TOF-SIMS, Surface Analysis by Mass Spectrometry; Vickerman, J. C.; Briggs, D., Eds.; IM Publications: Chichester, UK, 2001; pp 753–778.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hagenhoff, B. Optimization Methods: Cationization. In TOF-SIMS, Surface Analysis by Mass Spectrometry; pp Vickerman, J. C.; Briggs, D., Eds., IM Publications: Huddersfield, UK, 2001; 285–308.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benninghoven, A. Sichtermann, W. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A New Analytical Technique for Biologically Important Compounds. Org. Mass Spectrometry. 1977, 12, 595–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Michel, R.; Luginbühl, R.; Graham, D. J.; Ratner, B. D. New Substrates for Polymer Cationization with Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Langmuir 2000, 16, 6503–6509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benninghoven, A.; Rudenauer, F. G.; Werner, H. W. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry; John Wiley and Sons: New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grade, H.; Winograd, N.; Cooks, R. G. Cationization of Organic Molecules in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1977, 99, 7725–7726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gusev, A. I.; Choi, B. K.; Hercules, D. M. Improvement of Signal Intensities in Static Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry Using Halide Additives and Substrate Modification. J. Mass Spectrom. 1998, 33, 480–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Delcorte, A.; Médard, N.; Bertrand, P. Organic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Sensitivity Enhancement by Gold Deposition. Anal. Chem. 2002, 74, 4955–4968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wojciechowski, I.; Delcorte, A.; Gonze, X.; Bertrand, P. Mechanism of Metal Cationization in Organic SIMS. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2001, 346, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Decher, G. Fuzzy Nanoassemblies: Toward Layered Polymeric Multicomposites. Science 1997, 277, 1232–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Delcorte, A.; Bertrand, P.; Arys, X.; Jonas, A.; Wischerhoff, E.; Mayer, B.; Laschewsky, A. TOF-SIMS Study of Alternate Polyelectrolyte Thin Films: Chemical Surface Characterization and Molecular Secondary Ions Sampling Depth. Surf. Sci. 1996, 366, 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Delcorte, A.; Bertrand, P.; Wischerhoff, E.; Laschewsky, A. Adsorption of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers on Polymer Surfaces. Langmuir 1997, 13, 5125–5136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Laschewsky, A.; Wischerhoff, E.; Bertrand, P.; Delcorte, A. Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Containing Photoreactive Groups. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 1997, 198, 3239–3253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cooper, T. M.; Campbell, A. L.; Crane, R. L. Formation of Polypeptide-Dye Multilayers by Electrostatic Self-Assembly Technique. Langmuir 1995, 11, 2713–2718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ariga, K.; Lvov, Y.; Kunitake, T. Assembling Alternate Dye-Polyion Molecular Films by Electrostatic Layer-by-Layer Adsorption. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 2224–2231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Linford, M. R.; Auch, M.; Möhwald, H. Nonmonotonic Effect of Ionic Strength on Surface Dye Extraction During Dye-Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Formation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 178–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ariga, K.; Onda, M.; Lvov, Y.; Kunitake, T. Alternate Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Organic Dyes and Proteins is Facilitated by Premixing with Linear Polyions. Chem. Lett. 1997, 25–26.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dawydoff, W.; Linow, K.-J.; Philipp, B. Acta Polym. 1991, 42, 592–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dawydoff, W.; Linow, K.-J.; Philipp, B. Acta Polym. 1991, 42, 646–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lua, Y.-Y.; Fillmore, W. J. J.; Linford, M. R. Aldehydes React with Scribed Silicon to Form Alkyl Monolayers. Characterization by TOF-SIMS Suggests an Even-Odd Effect. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2004, 231/232, 323–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prodi, L.; Montalti, M.; Zaccheroni, N.; Bradshaw, J. S.; Izatt, R. M.; Savage, P. B. Characterization of 5-Chloro-8 Methoxyquinoline Appended Diaza-18-Crown-6 as a Chemosensor for Cadmium. Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 2941–2944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bain, C. D.; Whitesides, G. M. Attenuation Lengths of Photoelectrons in Hydrocarbon Films. J. Phys. Chem. 1989, 93, 1670–1673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moulder, J. F.; Stickle, W. F.; Sobol, P. E.; Bomben, K. D. Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy; Physical Electronics, Inc: Eden Prarie, MN, 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society for Mass Spectrometry 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yit-Yian Lua
    • 1
  • Li Yang
    • 1
  • Craig A. Pew
    • 1
  • Feng Zhang
    • 1
  • W. Jonathan
    • 1
  • J. Fillmore
    • 1
  • R. Todd Bronson
    • 1
  • Amarchand Sathyapalan
    • 1
  • Paul B. Savage
    • 1
  • Jed D. Whittaker
    • 2
  • Robert C. Davis
    • 2
  • Matthew R. Linford
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA

Personalised recommendations