A two-dimensional quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

  • Jae C. SchwartzEmail author
  • Michael W. Senko
  • John E. P. Syka
Focus: Quadrupole Ion Traps


The use of a linear or two-dimensional (2-D) quadrupole ion trap as a high performance mass spectrometer is demonstrated. Mass analysis is performed by ejecting ions out a slot in one of the rods using the mass selective instability mode of operation. Resonance ejection and excitation are utilized to enhance mass analysis and to allow isolation and activation of ions for MSn capability. Improved trapping efficiency and increased ion capacity are observed relative to a three-dimensional (3-D) ion trap with similar mass range. Mass resolution comparable to 3-D traps is readily achieved, including high resolution at slower scan rates, although adequate mechanical tolerance of the trap structure is a requirement. Additional advantages of 2-D over 3-D ion traps are also discussed and demonstrated.


Trapping Efficiency Space Charge Effect Resonance Ejection Space Charge Limit Axial Ejection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Prestage, J. D.; Dick, G. J. et al. New Ion Trap for Frequency Standard Applications. J. Appl. Phys. 1989, 66, 1013–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Birkl, G.; Kassner, S. et al. Multiple-shell Structures of Laser-cooled 24Mg+ Ions in a Quadrupole Storage Ring. Nature 1992, 357, 310–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dolnikowski, G. G.; Kristo, M. J. et al. Ion-Trapping Technique for Ion/Molecule Reaction Studies in the Center Quadrupole of a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. Int. J. Mass Spec. Ion Proc. 1988, 82, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Senko, M. W.; Hendrickson, C. L. et al. External Accumulation of Ions for Enhanced Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spec. 1997, 8, 970–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sannes-Lowery, K. A.; Griffey, R. H. et al. Multipole Storage Assisted Dissociation, a Novel In-source Dissociation Technique for Electrospray Ionization Generated Ions. Rapid Comm. Mass Spec. 1998, 12, 1957–1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belov, M.; Nikolaev, E. N. et al. Design and Performance of an ESI Interface for Selective External Ion Accumulation Coupled to a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometer. Anal. Chem. 2001, 73, 253–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Syka, J. E. P.; Bai, D. L. et al. A Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometer, A New Tool for Proteomics. 49th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Chicago, Illinois, 2001.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ijames, C. F. A Proposed Two Dimensional Quadrupole/ Electrostatic Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. 44th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Portland, Oregon, 1996.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Whitehouse, C. M.; Gulcicek, E. E. et al. A Two Dimensional Ion Trap API TOF Mass Spectrometer. 46th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Orlando, Florida, 1998.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Campbell, J. M.; Collings, B. A. et al. A New Linear Ion Trap Time-of-flight System with Tandem Mass Spectrometry Capabilities. Rapid Comm. Mass Spec. 1998, 12, 1463–1474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Collings, B. A.; Campbell, J. M. et al. A combined linear ion trap time-of-flight system with improved performance and MSn capabilities. Rapid Comm. Mass Spec. 2001, 15, 1777–1795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Douglas, D. J. Multipole Inlet System for Ion Traps. US Patent 5,179,278, 1991.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cha, B.; Blades, M. W. et al. An Interface with a Linear Quadrupole Ion Guide for an Electrospray-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer System. Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 5647–5654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Syka, J. E. P. and Fies, W. J. Jr. Fourier Transform Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer and Method. US Patent 4,755,670, 1988.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bier, M. E. and Syka, J. E. P. Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer System and Method. US Patent 5,420,425, 1995.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stafford, G. C.; Kelly, P. E. et al. Recent Improvements in and Analytical Applications of Advanced Ion Trap Technology. Int. J. Mass Spec. Ion Physics 1984, 60, 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    enko, M. W.; Schwartz, J. C. et al. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap. 48th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Long Beach, California, 2000.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Welling, M.; Schuessler, H. A. et al. Ion/molecule reactions, mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy in a linear ion trap. Int. J. Mass Spec. Ion Proc. 1998, 172, 95–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lammert, S. A.; Plass, W. R.; Thompson, C. V.; Wise, M. B. Design, Optimization and Initial Performance of a Toroidal rf Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. Int. J. Mass Spec. 2001, 88, 97–111.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hager, J. W. A New Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. Rapid Comm. Mass Spec. 2002, 16, 512–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Beu, S. C.; Laude, D. A. J. Elimination of Axial Ejection during Excitation with a Capacitively Coupled Open Trapped-Ion Cell for Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 1992, 64, 177–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Syka, J. E. P. Commercialization of the Quadrupole Ion Trap. March, R. E.; Todd, J. F. J., Eds. Practical Aspects of Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry, Volume 1: Fundamentals of Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry, 1. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1995; 169–205.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reiser, H. P.; Kaiser, R. E.; Savickas, P. J.; Cooks, R. G. Measurement of Kinetic Energies of Ions Ejected from a Quadrupole Ion Trap. Int. J. Mass Spec. Ion Proc. 1991, 106, 237–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Louris, J. N. and Taylor, D. M. Method and apparatus for ejecting unwanted ions in an ion trap mass spectrometer. US Patent 5,324,939, 1993.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Syka, J. E. P.; Louris, J. N. Method of operating ion trap detector in MS/MS mode. US Patent 4,736,101, 1988.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moini, M. Ultramark 1621 as a Calibration/Reference Compound for Mass Spectrometry. II. Positive- and Negative-ion Electrospray Ionization. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec. 1994, 8, 711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schwartz, J. C. Do Space Charge Effects Limit LC Quadrupole Ion Trap Performance? 9th Sanibel Conference on Mass Spectrometry, Sanibel Island, Florida, 1997.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    March, R. E.; Hughes, R. J. Quadrupole Storage Mass Spectrometry. Wiley: New York, 1989; 191.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hemberger, P. H.; Nogar, N. S. et al. Laser Photodissociation Probe for Ion Tomography Studies in a Quadrupole Ion-trap Mass Spectrometer. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1992, 191, 405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schwartz, J. C.; Syka, J. E. P. et al. High Resolution on a Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spec. 1991, 2, 198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schwartz, J. C.; Jardine, I. High Resolution Parent-ion Selection/Isolation Using a Quadrupole Ion-trap Mass Spectrometer. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec. 1992, 6, 313–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Louris, J. N.; Amy, J. W. et al. Injection of Ions into a Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. Int. J. Mass Spec. Ion Proc. 1989, 88, 97–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Quarmby, S. T.; Yost, R. A. Fundamental Studies of Ion Injection and Trapping of Electrosprayed Ions on a Quadrupole Ion Trap. Int. J. Mass Spec. 1999, 190/191, 81–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society for Mass Spectrometry 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jae C. Schwartz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael W. Senko
    • 1
  • John E. P. Syka
    • 2
  1. 1.LC and LC/MS DivisionThermo FinniganSan JoseUSA
  2. 2.LC and LC/MS DivisionThermo FinniganCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations