Journal of Hydrodynamics

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 715–724 | Cite as

Simulation of the load rejection transient process of a francis turbine by using a 1-D-3-D coupling approach

  • Xiao-xi Zhang (张晓曦)Email author
  • Yong-guang Cheng (程永光)
  • Jian-dong Yang (杨建东)
  • Lin-sheng Xia (夏林生)
  • Xu Lai (赖旭)


This paper presents the simulation and the analysis of the transient process of a Francis turbine during the load rejection by employing a one-dimensional and three-dimensional (1-D-3-D) coupling approach. The coupling is realized by partly overlapping the 1-D and 3-D parts, the water hammer wave is modeled by defining the pressure dependent density, and the guide vane closure is treated by a dynamic mesh method. To verify the results of the coupling approach, the transient parameters for both typical models and a real power station are compared with the data obtained by the 1-D approach, and good agreements are found. To investigate the differences between the transient and steady states at the corresponding operating parameters, the flow characteristics inside a turbine of the real power station are simulated by both transient and steady methods, and the results are analyzed in details. Our analysis suggests that there are just a little differences in the turbine outer characteristics, thus the traditional 1-D method is in general acceptable. However, the flow patterns in the spiral casing, the draft tube, and the runner passages are quite different: the transient situation has obvious water hammer waves, the water inertia, and some other effects. These may be crucial for the draft tube pulsation and need further studies.

Key words

Francis turbine hydraulic transients CFD simulation flow characteristics 


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Copyright information

© China Ship Scientific Research Center 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-xi Zhang (张晓曦)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yong-guang Cheng (程永光)
    • 1
  • Jian-dong Yang (杨建东)
    • 1
  • Lin-sheng Xia (夏林生)
    • 1
  • Xu Lai (赖旭)
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering ScienceWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

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