Skip to main content

Professional Learning and Development in Classroom Management for Novice Teachers: A Systematic Review

Abstract

There is a growing awareness that novice teachers in particular are in need of support and additional professional learning and development (PLD), especially in the area of classroom management. Yet there is limited information regarding effective approaches for building novice teachers’ skills related to classroom management. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of experimental studies related to novice teacher PLD in classroom management. We identified eight original experimental peer-reviewed studies published. We explored the research base, applying the Council for Exceptional Children Quality Indicators and coding studies to identify elements of practice-based professional development. Together, the available studies suggested that providing PLD increases classroom management practices while increasing student engagement. We discuss the implications of this review and conclude with implications for practice and future research related to novice teacher PLD.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  • Ball, D. L., & Cohen, D. K. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (pp. 3-32). Jossey.

  • Bateman, B. D. (2007). Elements of teaching: A best practices handbook for beginning teachers. Attainment.

  • Begeny, J. C., & Martens, B. K. (2006). Assessing pre-service teachers’ training in empirically-validated behavioral instruction practices. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 262–285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Billingsley, B., & Bettini, E. (2019). Special Education Teacher Attrition and Retention: A Review of the Literature. Review of Educational Research, 89(5), 697–744. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654319862495.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Briere, D. E., Simonsen, B., Sugai, G., & Myers, D. (2015). Increasing new teachers’ specific praise rates using a within-school consultation intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17, 50-60. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300713497098

  • Browers, A., & Tomic, W. (2000). A longitudinal study of teacher burnout and perceived self-efficacy in classroom management. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 239–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(99)00057-8

  • Boardman, A. G., Arguelles, M. E., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Klingner, J. (2005). Special education teacher’s views of research-based practices. The Journal of Special Education, 39, 168–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Borko, H., Koellner, K., Jacobs, J., & Seago, N. (2011). Using video representations of teaching in practice-based professional development programs. Mathematics Education, 43, 175–187.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowsher, A., Sparks, D., & Hoyer, K. M. (2018). Preparation and support for teachers in public schools: Reflections on the first years of teaching (NCES 2018-143). Stats in Brief, U.S. Department of Education.

  • Burns, M. K., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2009). Reported prevalence of evidence-based instructional practices in special education. The Journal of Special Education, 43, 3–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Conroy, M. A., & Sutherland, K. S. (2012). Effective teachers for students with emotional/behavioral disorders: Active ingredients leading to positive teacher and student outcomes. Beyond Behavior, 22(1), 7–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cook, B. G., Buysse, V., Klingner, J., Landrum, T. J., McWilliam, R. A., Tankersley, M., & Test, D. W. (2015). CEC’s standards for classifying the evidence base of practices in special education. Remedial and Special Education, 36, 220–234. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932514557271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Council for Exceptional Children. (2014). Council for Exceptional Children standards for evidence-based practices in special education.

  • Council for Exceptional Children: Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. (2014). TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(6), 206–212. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040059914531389

  • Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective teacher professional development. Learning Policy Institute.

  • Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. National Staff Development Council. http://www.nsdc.org/news/NSDCstudy2009.PLDf

  • *Dicke, T., Elling, J., Schmeck, A., & Leutner, D. (2015). Reducing reality shock: The effects of classroom management skills training on beginning teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 48, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.01.013

  • Drummond, T. (1994). The Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS). Josephine County Mental Health Program.

  • Emmer, E. T., & Evertson, C. M. (2008). Classroom management for middle and high school teachers (with MyEducationLab) (8th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

  • Espinoza, D., Saunders, R., Kini, T., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2018). Taking the long view: State efforts to solve teacher shortages by strengthening the profession. Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/product/long-view

  • *Evertson, C. M., & Smithey, M. W. (2000). Mentoring effects on protégés’ classroom practice: An experimental field study. Journal of Educational Research, 93, 294-304.

  • Festas, I., Oliveira, A. L., Rebelo, J. A., Damiao, M. H., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2014). Professional development in self-regulated strategy development: Effects on the writing performance of eighth grade Portuguese students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 40, 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.05.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fischer, S. H., Rose, A. J., McBain, R. K., Faherty, L. J., Sousa, J., & Martineau, M. (2019). Evaluation of technology-enabled collaborative learning and capacity building models: Material for a report to Congress. RAND Corporation.

  • Fixsen, D. L., & Paine, S. (2009). Implementation: Promising practices to sustained results (Sustainability Series No. 5). RMC Research Corporation.

  • Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature (FMHI Publication No. 231). Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida, The National Implementation Research Network. https://nirn.fpg.unc.edu/sites/nirn.fpg.unc.edu/files/resources/NIRNMonographFull-01-2005.pdf

  • Flores, M. A., & Day, C. (2006). Contexts which shape and reshape new teachers’ identities: a multi-perspective study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 219–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., Briere, D., & MacSuga-Gage, A. M. (2014). Pre-service teacher training in classroom management: A review of state accreditation policy and teacher preparation programs. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37(2), 106–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/0888406413507002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Gage, N. A., Grasley-Boy, N., & MacSuga-Gage, A. S. (2018). Professional development for teacher behavior specific praise: A single-case design replication. Psychology in the Schools, 55, 264-277. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22106

  • *Gage, N. A., MacSuga-Gage, A. S., & Crews, E. (2017). Increasing teachers’ use of behavior specific praise using a multi-tiered system for professional development. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19, 239-251. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717693568

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., Innocenti, M. S. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional Children, 71, 149–164.

  • Gersten, R., Vaughn, S., Deshler, D., & Schiller, E. (1997). What we know about using research findings: Implications for improving special education practice. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 466–476.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodson, B., Caswell, L., Dynarski, M., Price, C., Litwok, D., Crowe, E., Meyer, R., & Rice, A. (2019). Teacher preparation experiences and early teaching effectiveness: Executive summary (NCEE 2019-4010). In National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. U.S. Department of Education.

  • Guarino, C. M., Santibanez, L., & Daley, G. A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 76, 173–208. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543076002173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harris, K. R., Lane, K. L., Graham, S., Driscoll, S. A., Sandmel, K., Brindle, M., & Schatschneider, C. (2012). Practice-based professional development for self-regulated strategies development in writing: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Teacher Education, 63, 103–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Herro, D., Hirsch, S. E., & Quigley, C. (2019). Faculty-in-Residence program: Enacting practice-based professional development in a STEAM-focused middle school. Professional Development in Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2019.1702579.

  • *Hirsch, S. E., Lloyd, J. W., & Kennedy, M. J. (2019). Professional development in practice: Improving novice teachers’ use of universal classroom management practices. Elementary School Journal, 120, 61-87. https://doi.org/10.1086/704492

  • Hirsch, S. E., Randall, T., Common, E., & Lane, K. L. (2020). Results of practice-based professional development for supporting special educators in learning how to design functional assessment-based interventions. Teacher Education and Special Education, 43(4), 281–295. https://doi.org/10.1177/0888406419876926.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children, 71, 165–179. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487111429005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ingersoll, R. M. (2012). Beginning teacher induction: What the data tell us. Phi Delta Kappa, 93, 47–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., & Stuckey, D. (2014). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force, uPLDated April 2014. CPRE Report (#RR-80). Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.

  • Ingersoll, R., Merrill, E., Stuckey, D., & Collins, G. (2018). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force, uPLDated October 2018. Research Report (# R.R. 2018–2). Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.

  • Ingersoll, R., & Smith, T. M. (2003, May). The wrong solution to the teacher shortage. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 30–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. In B. Joyce & B. Showers (Eds.), Designing training and peer coaching: Our needs for learning, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

  • King, S., Davidson, K., Chitiyo, A., & Apple, D. (2020). Evaluating article search and selection procedures in special education literature reviews. Remedial and Special Education, 41(1), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932518813142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Landrum, T. J., Cook, B. G., Tankersley, M., & Fitzgerald, S. (2007). Teacher perceptions of the usability of intervention information from personal versus data-based sources. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(4), 27–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lane, K. L., Common, E. A., Royer, D. J., & Muller, K. (2014). Group comparison and single-case research design quality indicator matrix using Council for Exceptional Children 2014 standards. Unpublished tool. Retrieved from http://www.ci3t.org/practice

  • Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Powers, L., Diebold, T., Germer, K., Common, E. A., & Brunsting, N. (2015). Improving teachers’ knowledge of functional assessment-based interventions: Outcomes of a professional development series. Education and Treatment of Children, 38, 93–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behavior support: A systems approach to proactive schoolwide management. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(6), 1–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, R., Roache, J., & Romi, S. (2011). Coping styles as mediators of teachers’ classroom management techniques. Research in Education, 85, 53–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leko, M. M., & Brownell, M. T. (2009). Crafting quality professional development for special educators: What school leaders should know. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 42(1), 64–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loucks-Horsley, S., Hewson, P. W., Love, N., & Stiles, K. E. (1999). Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics. Corwin Press.

  • Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing instructional objectives: A critical tool in the development of effective instruction (3rd ed.). CEP Press.

  • Maggin, D. M., Talbott, E., Van Acker, E. Y., & Kumm, S. (2017). Quality indicators for systematic reviews in behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 42, 52–64. https://doi.org/10.1177/0198742916688653.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martens, B. K., Witt, J. C., Elliott, S. N., & Darveaux, D. X. (1985). Teacher judgments concerning the acceptability of school-based interventions. Professional Psychology Research and Practice., 16, 191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marzano, R. J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. ASCD.

  • McCarthy, C. J., Lineback, S., & Reiser, J. (2015). Teacher stress, emotion, and classroom management. In E. T. Emmer & E. J. Sabornie (Eds.), Handbook of Classroom Management (2nd ed., pp. 301-321). Routledge.

  • MetLife Inc. (2013). The MetLife survey of the American teacher: Challenges for school leadership. https://www.metlife.com/content/dam/microsites/about/corporate-profile/MetLife-Teacher-Survey-2012.PLDf

  • Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., & Stewart, L. A. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews, 4, Article 1.

  • National Center for Education Statistics. (2015). Schools and Staffing Survey. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/sass/

  • Office of Special Education Programs. (2015). Supporting and responding to student behavior: Evidence-based classroom strategies for teachers. Office of Special Education Programs. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/resources/supporting-and-responding-to-behavior-evidence-based-classroom-strategies-for-teachers

  • Oliver, R. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Effective classroom management: Teacher preparation and professional development. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED543769.PLDf.

  • Pogodzinski, B., Youngs, P., & Frank, K. A. (2013). Collegial climate and novice teachers’ intent to remain teaching. American Journal of Education, 120, 27–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Rathel, J. M., Drasgow, E., Brown, W. H., & Marshall, K. J. (2014). Increasing induction-level teachers’ positive-to-negative communication ratio and use of behavior-specific praise through e-mailed performance feedback and its effect on students’ task engagement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16, 219–233. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300713492856

  • Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Sprick, R. (2011). Motivational interviewing for effective classroom management: The classroom check-up. Guilford Press.

  • Reinke, W. M., Stormont, M., Herman, K. C., Wachsmuth, S., & Newcomer, L. (2015). The Brief Classroom Interaction Observation –Revised: An observation system to inform and increase teacher use of universal classroom management practices. Journal of Positive Behavior Intervention, 17, 159–169. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300715570640.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Root-Elledge, S., Hardesty, C., Hidecker, M. J. C., Bowser, G., Leki, E., Wagner, S., & Moody, E. (2018). The ECHO model for enhancing assistive technology implementation in schools. Assistive Technology Outcomes and Benefits, 12, 37–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., & Common, E. A. (2017). Group comparison and single-case research design quality indicator matrix using Council for Exceptional Children 2014 standards: Standards overview and walk-through guide. Unpublished tool. Retrieved from https://www.ci3t.org/practice

  • Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31, 351380.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, T. M., & Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover? American Educational Research Journal, 41, 681–714.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stallion, B. K., & Zimpher, N. L. (1991). Classroom management intervention: The effects of training and mentoring on the inductee teacher’s behavior. Action in Teacher Education, 13, 42–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson, N. A., VanLone, J., & Barber, B. R. (2020). A commentary on the misalignment of teacher education and the need for classroom behavior management skills. Education and Treatment of Children. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43494-020-00031-1.

  • Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implict technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349–367.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stough, L. A., & Montague, M. L. (2015). How teachers learn to be classroom managers. In E. T. Emmer & E. J. Sabornie (Eds.), Handbook of Classroom Management (2nd ed., pp. 446-458). Routledge.

  • Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2016). A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the U.S. Learning Policy Institute.

  • Sutton, R., Mudrey-Camino, R., & Knight, C. C. (2009). Teachers’ emotion regulation and classroom management. Theory into Practice, 38, 130–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Tolan, P., Elreda L. M., Bradshaw, C. P., Downer, J. T., & Ialongo, N. (2020). Randomized trial testing the integration of the Good Behavior Game and MyTeachingPartnerTM:The moderating role of distress among new teachers on student outcomes. Journal of School Psychology, 78, 75-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2019.12.002

  • Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 944–956.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wei, R. C., Darling-Hammond, L., & Adamson, F. (2009). Professional development in the United States: Trends and challenges. National Staff Development Council.

  • Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement (Issues & Answers Report, REL 200 No. 033). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shanna E. Hirsch.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest/Competing interests

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Code availability

Not applicable

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hirsch, S.E., Randall, K., Bradshaw, C. et al. Professional Learning and Development in Classroom Management for Novice Teachers: A Systematic Review. Educ. Treat. Child. 44, 291–307 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43494-021-00042-6

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43494-021-00042-6

Keywords

  • behavior management
  • classroom management
  • new teacher
  • novice teacher
  • professional development
  • quality indicators