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Racial Variation of Carrying Angle of Elbow in North-East Indian Population: A Clinico-Radiological Study

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Carrying angle of elbow is the angle borne by the forearm to the arm in fully extended elbow and supinated forearm. Northeast Indian population being an amalgamation of diverse ethnicity of population, the researchers have felt the necessity of a reference value for this anthropometric parameter for pre-operative planning and template. The objective is to study the difference in carrying angle between males and females and its correlation with different parameters like age, sex, height, body mass index and handedness.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital on 384 persons with ages ranging from 20 to 74 years. Carrying angle was measured by goniometer and confirmed by radiography.


Three hundred and forty-three were right handed while 41 individuals were left handed. In males, the mean carrying angle of the right elbow was found to be 12.55 ± 2.3° and of the left was found to be 12.27 ± 2.43°, while in females, the mean carrying angle of the right elbow was found to be 14.53 ± 2.34° and 14.06 ± 3.37° in the left (p < 0.05). Carrying angle is usually found significantly higher in dominant upper limb. There is no significant difference in carrying angle for northeast Indian population from the rest of the country.


We have found that carrying angle is dependent on gender and on dominance of upper limb. The carrying angle variation in Northeastern Indian population is almost comparable with the population of the rest of our country except for some specific tribes which needs further analysis.

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Correspondence to Tulasidas Bhattacharyya.

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On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study proposal was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, vide Letter No. NO.MC/190/2007/pt-II/Jun-2019/38 dated fifteenth day of July, 2019.

Informed consent

An adequately structured informed consent form was formulated and approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of our institute vide supra, and only those subjects were included in our study who gave consent in the form of signature in the informed consent form as mentioned earlier.

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Bhattacharyya, T., Roy, R., Islam, M. et al. Racial Variation of Carrying Angle of Elbow in North-East Indian Population: A Clinico-Radiological Study. JOIO 56, 457–463 (2022).

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