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The Incidence, Diagnosis, and Treatment practices of Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in India: A Scoping Systematic Review

Abstract

Purpose

To identify literature on variations and knowledge gaps in the incidence, diagnosis, and management of developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH) in India.

Methods

Following standard methodology and PRISMA-ScR guidelines, a scoping systematic review of literature on incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of DDH in India was conducted. Studies conducted in India, published in indexed or non-indexed journals between 1975 and March 2021, were included in the search.

Results

Of 57 articles which met the inclusion criteria, only 33 studies (57.8%) were PubMed-indexed. Twenty-eight studies (49%) were published in Orthopaedic journals and majority had orthopaedic surgeon as the lead author (59.6%). Sixteen studies were mainly epidemiological, 20 reported screening/diagnosis, and 21 reported treatment of DDH. Almost 90% of the studies (51) were Level 4 or 5 according to the levels of evidence in research. There is lack of clarity in the definition of hip dysplasia and screening/diagnostic guidelines to be used. The incidence of hip dysplasia in India is reported to be 0–75 per 1000 live births, with true DDH between 0 and 2.6/1000. Late-presenting DDH is common in India, with most studies reporting a mean age of > 20 months for children presenting for treatment. The treatment is also varied and there is no clear evidence-based approach to various treatment options, with lack of long-term studies.

Conclusion

This systematic scoping review highlights various knowledge gaps pertaining to DDH diagnosis and management in India. High-quality, multicentric research in identified gap areas, with long-term follow-up, is desired in future.

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Contributions

SC and AA conceptualised and designed the study. Data analysis and review was carried out by SC and AA. The first draft of the manuscript was written by SC and edited by AA, RP, and ANJ. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Alaric Aroojis.

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Since this is a scoping systematic review, ethics approval to participate were not required for this study.

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Since this is a scoping systematic review, consent to participate were not required for this study.

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Chand, S., Aroojis, A., Pandey, R.A. et al. The Incidence, Diagnosis, and Treatment practices of Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in India: A Scoping Systematic Review. JOIO (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43465-021-00526-y

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Keywords

  • Developmental dysplasia of hip
  • Dislocation
  • Screening
  • Ultrasonography
  • Treatment
  • Scoping review
  • India