To identify literature on variations and knowledge gaps in the incidence, diagnosis, and management of developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH) in India.
Following standard methodology and PRISMA-ScR guidelines, a scoping systematic review of literature on incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of DDH in India was conducted. Studies conducted in India, published in indexed or non-indexed journals between 1975 and March 2021, were included in the search.
Of 57 articles which met the inclusion criteria, only 33 studies (57.8%) were PubMed-indexed. Twenty-eight studies (49%) were published in Orthopaedic journals and majority had orthopaedic surgeon as the lead author (59.6%). Sixteen studies were mainly epidemiological, 20 reported screening/diagnosis, and 21 reported treatment of DDH. Almost 90% of the studies (51) were Level 4 or 5 according to the levels of evidence in research. There is lack of clarity in the definition of hip dysplasia and screening/diagnostic guidelines to be used. The incidence of hip dysplasia in India is reported to be 0–75 per 1000 live births, with true DDH between 0 and 2.6/1000. Late-presenting DDH is common in India, with most studies reporting a mean age of > 20 months for children presenting for treatment. The treatment is also varied and there is no clear evidence-based approach to various treatment options, with lack of long-term studies.
This systematic scoping review highlights various knowledge gaps pertaining to DDH diagnosis and management in India. High-quality, multicentric research in identified gap areas, with long-term follow-up, is desired in future.
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The authors state that they have no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise, concerning the material or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.
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Chand, S., Aroojis, A., Pandey, R.A. et al. The Incidence, Diagnosis, and Treatment practices of Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in India: A Scoping Systematic Review. JOIO (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43465-021-00526-y
- Developmental dysplasia of hip
- Scoping review