Skip to main content

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injection in Sports Injuries



Sports injuries are very common, and the management demands high degrees of skills and best techniques for an early return to play. The use of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections in the treatment of tendon, muscle and ligament injuries has become popular. This study observes the outcomes of PRP injections in sports injuries.


Forty-eight athletes (mean age 29.93 ± 8.48, Male: 37, Female: 11) presenting to a sports medicine centre with different sports injuries with symptom duration (2.81 ± 1.94) months were given PRP injections (single or multiple) four weeks apart with maximum number of injections up to three depending upon the clinical condition, Pre and Post VAS scores. Specific rehabilitation program was administered and compliance was graded by Sports Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale (SIRAS). A 1 year follow-up of cases was done for assessing player satisfaction and return to play.


Pre-procedure (7.25 ± 0.70) and post-procedure (2.42 ± 0.74) VAS score for all athletes showed significant difference with a p value at 0.0001. The average number of injections was 1.35 ± 1.41 with 72.91% requiring only one injection while 18.75% and 8.33% required two and three injections, respectively.


Athletes who required a single injection for acute injuries of lower grade returned to sports activity earlier than those who required multiple injections for chronic injuries. PRP injection has optimal effects on sports injuries not responding to conservative management

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. 1.

    Anitua, E., Andia, I., Ardanza, B., Nurden, P., & Nurden, A. T. (2004). Autologous platelets as a source of proteins for healing and tissue regeneration. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 91(1), 4–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    de Mos, M., van der Windt, A. E., Jahr, H., van Schie, H. T. M., Weinans, H., Verhaar, J. A. N., et al. (2008). Can platelet-rich plasma enhance tendon repair?: a cell culture study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(6), 1171–1178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Hayem, G. (2001). The normal tendon and the abnormal tendon. Joint Bone Spine, 68(1), 19–25.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Fenwick, S. A., Hazleman, B. L., & Riley, G. P. (2002). The vasculature and its role in the damaged and healing tendon. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 4(4), 252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Raeissadat, S. A., Sedighipour, L., Rayegani, S. M., Bahrami, M. H., Bayat, M., Rahimi, R. (2014). Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial [Internet]. Vol. 2014, Pain Research and Treatment. Hindawi. p. e191525. Available from: Accessed 26 May 2020.

  6. 6.

    Heijink, A., Gomoll, A. H., Madry, H., Drobnič, M., Filardo, G., Espregueira-Mendes, J., et al. (2012). Biomechanical considerations in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis of the knee. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 20(3), 423–435.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hart, R., Safi, A., Komzák, M., Jajtner, P., Puskeiler, M., & Hartová, P. (2013). Platelet-rich plasma in patients with tibiofemoral cartilage degeneration. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 133(9), 1295–1301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Jang, S.-J., Kim, J.-D., & Cha, S.-S. (2013). Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as an effective treatment for early osteoarthritis. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology, 23(5), 573–580.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Sánchez, M., Anitua, E., Azofra, J., Andía, I., Padilla, S., & Mujika, I. (2007). Comparison of surgically repaired achilles tendon tears using platelet-rich fibrin matrices. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(2), 245–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Weber, S. C., Kauffman, J. I., Parise, C., Weber, S. J., & Katz, S. D. (2012). Platelet-rich fibrin matrix in the management of arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Eppley, B. L., Woodell, J. E., & Higgins, J. (2004). Platelet quantification and growth factor analysis from platelet-rich plasma: implications for wound healing. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery., 114, 1502–1508.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Sampson, S., Gerhardt, M., & Mandelbaum, B. (2008). Platelet rich plasma injection grafts for musculoskeletal injuries: a review. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 1(3–4), 165–174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kelly, A.-M. (2001). The minimum clinically significant difference in visual analogue scale pain score does not differ with severity of pain. Emergency Medicine Journal, 18(3), 205–207.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Kolt, G. S., Brewer, B. W., Pizzari, T., Schoo, A. M. M., & Garrett, N. (2007). The sport injury rehabilitation adherence scale: a reliable scale for use in clinical physiotherapy. Physiotherapy, 93(1), 17–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Brewer, B. W., Van Raalte, J. L., Cornelius, A. E., Petitpas, A. J., Sklar, J. H., Pohlman, M. H., et al. (2000). Psychological factors, rehabilitation adherence, and rehabilitation outcome after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Rehabilitation Psychology, 45(1), 20–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Engebretsen, L., Steffen, K., Alsousou, J., Anitua, E., Bachl, N., Devilee, R., et al. (2010). IOC consensus paper on the use of platelet-rich plasma in sports medicine. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(15), 1072–1081.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Örsçeli̇K, A., & Yildiz, Y. (2015). Comparison of single and triple platelet rich plasma injections in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. TurkiyeKlinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences, 35(2), 78–87.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Rha, D., Park, G.-Y., Kim, Y.-K., Kim, M. T., & Lee, S. C. (2012). Comparison of the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection and dry needling in rotator cuff disease: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Kesikburun, S., Tan, A. K., Yılmaz, B., Yaşar, E., & Yazıcıoğlu, K. (2013). Platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. The American Journal of Sports Medicine.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Shams, A., El-Sayed, M., Gamal, O., & Ewes, W. (2016). Subacromial injection of autologous platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid for the treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology, 26(8), 837–842.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Grassi, A., Napoli, F., Romandini, I., Samuelsson, K., Zaffagnini, S., Candrian, C., et al. (2018). Is platelet-rich plasma (PRP) effective in the treatment of acute muscle injuries? a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N. Z.), 48(4), 971–989.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Ekstrand, J., Hägglund, M., & Waldén, M. (2011). Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). American Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(6), 1226–1232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Gaweda, K., Tarczynska, M., & Krzyzanowski, W. (2010). Treatment of achillestendinopathy with platelet-rich plasma. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(08), 577–583.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    de Vos, R. J., Weir, A., van Schie, H. T. M., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. A., Verhaar, J. A. N., Weinans, H., et al. (2010). Platelet-Rich plasma injection for chronic achillestendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 303(2), 144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Owens, R. F., Ginnetti, J., Conti, S. F., & Latona, C. (2011). Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes following platelet rich plasma injection for chronic midsubstanceachillestendinopathy. Foot and Ankle International, 32(11), 1032–1039.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Monto, R. R. (2012). Platelet rich plasma treatment for chronic achillestendinosis. Foot and Ankle International, 33(5), 379–385.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Filardo, G., Kon, E., Di Matteo, B., Pelotti, P., Di Martino, A., & Marcacci, M. (2013). Platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy: clinical and imaging findings at medium-term follow-up. International Orthopaedics (SICOT)., 37(8), 1583–1589.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kon, E., Filardo, G., Delcogliano, M., Presti, M. L., Russo, A., Bondi, A., et al. (2009). Platelet-rich plasma: new clinical application: a pilot study for treatment of jumper’s knee. Injury, 40(6), 598–603.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Lai, M. W. W., & Sit, R. W. S. (2018). Healing of complete tear of the anterior talofibular ligament and early ankle stabilization after autologous platelet rich plasma: a case report and literature review. Archives of Bone Joint Surgery, 6(2), 146–149.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Gallesio, G., Del Fabbro, M., Pol, R., Mortellaro, C., & Mozzati, M. (2015). Conservative treatment with plasma rich in growth factors-endoret for osteoradionecrosis. J Craniofac Surg., 26(3), 731–736.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ayyadurai Prakash.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard statement

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study informed consent is not required.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Arumugam, S., Prakash, A., Janani, G. et al. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injection in Sports Injuries. JOIO 55, 484–491 (2021).

Download citation


  • Platelet-rich plasma
  • Sports injury
  • Return to sports
  • Ultrasound guided
  • Rehabilitation
  • Patient satisfaction