Application of DNA Barcoding for Quality Control of Herbal Drugs and Their Phytopharmaceuticals

Abstract

Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years and nowadays are extensively employed to treat diverse illnesses. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants and its derivative products has led to an increase of adulterant material during the manufacturing process. The quality of the medicinal active products could be affected by reducing the concentration of bioactive metabolites, and by the presence of toxic compounds. DNA barcoding has become a robust methodology to identify and authenticate medicinal plants. In the present paper, we reviewed 366 manuscripts of medicinal plants published in the last 10 years, and the results of applying DNA barcoding were analyzed. We are also providing taxonomical information, medicinal properties, distribution of investigated material by country, and some representative active compounds. Overall, it was possible to identify 17 different barcode regions that were used to study medicinal plant material. Particularly, the use of ITS2 has increased due to its high discrimination rates at low taxonomic level; however, a multilocus DNA barcode approach could be a better tool to properly identify medicinal plants. Some emerging technologies that allow facing the limitations of DNA barcoding as DNA mini-barcoding, metabarcoding and bar-HRM technology, were reviewed. Future challenges will be the global application of the improved DNA barcoding technologies to properly authenticate and identify medicinal plants. DNA barcoding must be used in countries with a high consumption of herbal remedies in order to provide safe and effective medicinal products.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Data Availability

All data used to prepare this review are included in the manuscript.

References

  1. Abubakar BM, Salleh FM, Omar MSS, Wagiran A (2018) Assessing product adulteration of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) herbal medicinal product using DNA barcoding and HPLC analysis. Pharm Biol 56:368–377. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2018.1479869

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Ali MA, Lee J, Choudhary RK, Pandey AK, Al-Harb NA (2012) Assessing nrDNA ITS2 sequence based molecular signature of ginseng for potential use in quality control of drug. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 6:2775–2781. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP12.384

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Allkin B, Patmore K, Black N, Booker A, Canteiro C, Dauncey E, Edwards S, Forest F, Giovannini P, Howes MJ, Hudson A, Irving J, Leon C, Milliken W, Lughadha EN, Schippmann U, Simmonds M (2017) Useful plants-medicines. In: Willis KJ (ed) State of the World’s plants. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, pp 22–29

    Google Scholar 

  4. Asahina H, Shinozaki J, Masuda K, Morimitsu Y, Satake M (2010) Identification of medicinal Dendrobium species by phylogenetic analyses using matK and rbcL sequences. J Nat Med 64:133–138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-009-0379-8

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Aziz NAA, Ahmad MI, Naim DM (2015) Molecular DNA identification of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Malaysia. Genet Mol Res 14:15937–15947. https://doi.org/10.4238/2015.December.7.5

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Baldwin BG (1992) Phylogenetic utility of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA in plants: an example from the Compositae. Mol Phylogenet Evol 1:3–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/1055-7903(92)90030-K

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Buddhachat K, Osathanunkul M, Madesis P, Chomdej S, Ongchai S (2015) Authenticity analyses of Phyllanthus amarus using barcoding coupled with HRM analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product. Gene 573:84–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.07.046

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Cabelin VLD, Santor PJS, Alejandro GJD (2015) Evaluation of DNA barcoding efficiency of cpDNA barcodes in selected Philippine Leea L. (Vitaceae). Acta Bot Gall 162:317–324. https://doi.org/10.1080/12538078.2015.1092393

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. CBOL Plant Working Group (2009) A DNA barcode for land plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12794–12797

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Chen Q, Wu X, Zhang D (2020) Comparison of the abilities of universal, super, and specific DNA barcodes to discriminate among the original species of Fritillariae cirrhosae bulbus and its adulterants. PLoS One 15:e0229181. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0229181

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Chen S, Pang X, Song J, Shi L, Yao H, Han J, Leon C (2014) A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA. Biotechnol Adv 32:1237–1244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2014.07.004

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Chen S, Yao H, Han J, Liu C, Song J, Shi L, Zhu Y, Ma X, Gao T, Pang X, Luo K, Li Y, Li X, Jia X, Lin Y, Leon C (2010) Validation of the ITS2 region as a novel DNA barcode for identifying medicinal plant species. PLoS One 5:e8613. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008613

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Coghlan ML, Haile J, Houston J, Murray DC, White NE, Moolhuijzen P, Bellgard MI, Bunce M (2012) Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns. PLoS Genet 8:e1002657. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002657

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. Cordell GA (2011) Phytochemistry and traditional medicine - a revolution in process. Phytochem Lett 4:391–398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2011.05.005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Costa J, Campos B, Amaral JS, Nunes ME, Oliveira MBPP, Mafra I (2016) HRM analysis targeting ITS1 and matK loci as potential DNA mini-barcodes for the authentication of Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum androsaemum in herbal infusions. Food Control 61:105–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.09.035

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Cowan RS, Fay MF (2012) Challenges in the DNA barcoding of plant material. In: Sucher, N, Hennell J, Carles M (eds) Plant DNA Fingerprinting and Barcoding. Methods in Molecular Biology (Methods and Protocols). Humana Press, pp. 23–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-61779-609-8

  17. Cristians S, Bye R, Nieto-Sotelo J (2018) Molecular markers associated with chemical analysis: a powerful tool for quality control assessment of copalchi medicinal plant complex Front Pharmacol 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00666

  18. Cui X, Li W, Wei J, Qi Y, Li R, Yang Y, Shi Y, Meng X, Mi Y, Huot T, Sun W, Zheng X (2020) Assessing the identity of commercial herbs from a Cambodian market using DNA barcoding. Front Pharmacol 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00244

  19. de Boer HJ, Ichim MC, Newmaster SG (2015) DNA barcoding and pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines. Drug Saf 38:611–620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40264-015-0306-8

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. De Mattia F, Bruni I, Galimberti A, Cattaneo F, Casiraghi M, Labra M (2011) A comparative study of different DNA barcoding markers for the identification of some members of Lamiaceae. Food Res Int 44:693–702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.12.032

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Duan BZ, Wang YP, Fang HL, Xiong C, Li XW, Wang P, Chen S (2018) Authenticity analyses of Rhizoma Paridis using barcoding coupled with high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product. Chin Med 13:8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-018-0162-4

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. Enan MR, Palakkott AR, Ksiksi TS (2017) DNA barcoding of selected UAE medicinal plant species: a comparative assessment of herbarium and fresh samples. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 23:221–227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-016-0412-9

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Fadzil NF, Wagiran A, Salleh FM, Abdullah S, Izham NHM (2018) Authenticity testing and detection of Eurycoma longifolia in commercial herbal products using bar-high resolution melting analysis. Genes 9:408. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9080408

    CAS  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Fang C, Fernie AR, Luo J (2019) Exploring the diversity of plant metabolism. Trends Plant Sci 24:83–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2018.09.006

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Feng S, Jiang M, Shi Y, Jiao K, Shen C, Lu J, Ying Q, Wang H (2016) Application of the ribosomal DNA ITS2 region of Physalis (Solanaceae): DNA barcoding and phylogenetic study. Front Plant Sci 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01047

  26. Fu YM, Jiang WM, Fu CX (2011) Identification of species within Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch. (Vitaceae) based on DNA barcoding techniques. J Syst Evol 49:237–245. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2011.00126.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Ganie SH, Upadhyay P, Das S, Sharma MP (2015) Authentication of medicinal plants by DNA markers. Plant Gene 4:83–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plgene.2015.10.002

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. Gao T, Yao H, Song J, Liu C, Zhu Y, Ma X, Pang X, Xu H, Chen S (2010a) Identification of medicinal plants in the family Fabaceae using a potential DNA barcode ITS2. J Ethnopharmacol 130:116–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.04.026

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Gao T, Yao H, Song J, Zhu Y, Liu C, Chen S (2010b) Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family. BMC Evol Biol 10:324. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-10-324

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Gao Z, Liu Y, Wang X, Wei X, Han J (2019) DNA mini-barcoding: a derived barcoding method for herbal molecular identification. Front Plant Sci 10:987. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00987

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Gesto-Borroto R, Cardoso-Taketa A, Yactayo-Chang JP, Medina-Jiménez K, Hornung-Leoni C, Lorence A, VillarrealML (2019) DNA barcoding and TLC as tools to properly identify natural populations of the Mexican medicinal species Galphimia glauca Cav. PLoS One 14:e0217313. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217313

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Ghorbani S, Sonboli A, Ebrahimi SN, Mirjalili MH (2020) Molecular authentication and phytochemical assessment of Ruscus hyrcanus Woron. (Asparagaceae) based on trnH- psbA barcoding and HPLC-PDA analysis. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 25:101585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2020.101585

  33. Giudicelli GC, Mäder G, de Freitas LB (2015) Efficiency of ITS sequences for DNA barcoding in Passiflora (Passifloraceae). Int J Mol Sci 16:7289–7303. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16047289

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Gong L, Qiu XH, Huang J, Xu W, Bai JQ, Zhang J, Su H, Xu CM, Huang ZH (2018) Constructing a DNA barcode reference library for southern herbs in China: a resource for authentication of southern Chinese medicine. PLoS One 13:e0201240. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201240

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Gu J, Su JX, Lin RZ, Li RQ, Xiao PG (2011) Testing four proposed barcoding markers for the identification of species within Ligustrum L. (Oleaceae). J Syst Evol 49:213–224. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2011.00136.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Gu W, Song J, Cao Y, Sun Q, Yao H, Wu Q, Chao J, Zhou J, Xue W, Duan J (2013) Application of the ITS2 region for barcoding medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae in Pteridophyta. PLoS One 8:e67818. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067818

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Guo HY, Wang WW, Yang N, Guo BL, Zhang S, Yang RJ, Yuan Y, Yu JL, Hu SN, Sun QS, Yu J (2010) DNA barcoding provides distinction between Radix Astragali and its adulterants. Sci China Life Sci 53:992–999. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-010-4044-y

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Guo M, Ren L, Pang X (2017) Inspecting the true identity of herbal materials from Cynanchum using ITS2 barcode. Front Plant Sci 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01945

  39. Guo X, Simmons MP, But PPH, Shaw PC, Wang RJ (2011) Application of DNA barcodes in Hedyotis L. (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae). J Syst Evol 49:203–212. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2011.00130.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Hajibabaei M, deWaard JR, Ivanova NV, Ratnasingham S, Dooh RT, Kirk SL, Mackie PM, Hebert PDN (2005) Critical factors for assembling a high volume of DNA barcodes. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 360:1959–1967. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2005.1727

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Hajibabaei M, Singer GAC, Clare EL, Hebert PDN (2007) Design and applicability of DNA arrays and DNA barcodes in biodiversity monitoring. BMC Biol 5:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-5-24

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Han J, Chang L, Li M, Shi L, Song J, Yao H, Pang X, Chen S (2010) Relationship between DNA barcoding and chemical classification of Salvia L. medicinal herbs. Chinese Herb Med 2:16–29. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2009-1216449

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Han J, Pang X, Liao B, Yao H, Song J, Chen S (2016) An authenticity survey of herbal medicines from markets in China using DNA barcoding. Sci Rep 6:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep18723

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Hardy K (2020) Paleomedicine and the evolutionary context of medicinal plant use. Rev Bras Farmacogn. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43450-020-00107-4

  45. He J, Wong KL, Shaw PC, Wang H, Li DZ (2010) Identification of the medicinal plants in Aconitum L. by DNA barcoding technique. Planta Med 76:1622–1628. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1240967

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. He Y, Hou P, Fan G, Arain S, Peng C (2014a) Comprehensive analyses of molecular phylogeny and main alkaloids for Coptis (Ranunculaceae) species identification. Biochem Syst Ecol 56:88–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2014.05.002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. He Y, Wan F, Xiong L, Li DM, Peng C (2014b) Identification of two chemotypes of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. through DNA barcodes. Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch - sect C J Biosci 69c:253–258. https://doi.org/10.5560/ZNC.2013-0180

  48. Hebert PDN, Cywinska A, Ball SL, deWaard JR (2003) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 270:313–321. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2218

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Hollingsworth PM, Graham SW, Little DP (2011) Choosing and using a plant DNA barcode. PLoS One 6:e19254. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019254

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. Hsu HF, Huang KH, Lu KJ, Chiou SJ, Yen JH, Chang CC, Houng JY (2011) Typhonium blumei extract inhibits proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. J Ethnopharmacol 135:492–500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.03.048

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Hu Z, Tu Y, Xia Y, Cheng P, Sun W, Shi Y, Guo L, He H, Xiong C, Chen S, Zhang X (2015) Rapid identification and verification of indirubin-containing medicinal plants. Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med 2015:484670–484679. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/484670

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Jia J, Xu Z, Xin T, Shi L, Song J (2017) Quality control of the traditional patent medicine yimu wan based on SMRT sequencing and DNA barcoding Front Plant Sci 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00926

  53. Jian C, Deyi Q, Qiaoyun Y, Jia H, Dexing L, Xiaoya W, Leiqing Z (2014) A successful case of DNA barcoding used in an international trade dispute. DNA Barcodes 2:21–28. https://doi.org/10.2478/dna-2014-0004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Kalivas A, Ganopoulos I, Xanthopoulou A, Chatzopoulou P, Tsaftaris A, Madesis P (2014) DNA barcode ITS2 coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for taxonomic identification of Sideritis species growing in Greece. Mol Biol Rep 41:5147–5155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-014-3381-5

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Khan S, Al-Qurainy F, Nadeem M, Tarroum M (2012) Development of genetic markers for Ochradenus arabicus (Resedaceae), an endemic medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia. Genet Mol Res 11:1300–1308. https://doi.org/10.4238/2012.May.14.4

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Krawczyk K, Szczecińska M, Sawicki J (2014) Evaluation of 11 single-locus and seven multilocus DNA barcodes in Lamium L. (Lamiaceae). Mol Ecol Resour 14:272–285. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.12175

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Kress WJ (2017) Plant DNA barcodes: applications today and in the future. J Syst Evol 55:291–307. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.12254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Kress WJ, Wurdack KJ, Zimmer EA, Weigt LA, Janzen DH (2005) Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:8369–8374. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0503123102

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. Kreuzer M, Howard C, Adhikari B, Pendry CA, Hawkins JA (2019) Phylogenomic approaches to DNA barcoding of herbal medicines: developing clade-specific diagnostic characters for Berberis. Front Plant Sci 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00586

  60. Li M, Cao H, But PPH, Shaw PC (2011) Identification of herbal medicinal materials using DNA barcodes. J Syst Evol 49:271–283. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2011.00132.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Li Y, Geng L, Liu Y, Chen M, Mu Q, Zhang X, Zhang Z, Ren G, Liu C (2018) Identification of three Daphne species by DNA barcoding and HPLC fingerprint analysis. PLoS One 13:e0201711. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201711

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. Li Y, Ruan J, Chen S, Song J, Luo K, Lu D, Yao H (2010) Authentication of Taxillus chinensis using DNA barcoding technique. J Med Plants Res 4:2706–2709. https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr09.677

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Liu J, Yan HF, Ge XJ (2016) The use of DNA barcoding on recently diverged species in the genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) in China. PLoS One 11:e0153008. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153008

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. Liu Z, Zeng X, Yang D, Chu G, Yuan Z, Chen S (2012) Applying DNA barcodes for identification of plant species in the family Araliaceae. Gene 499:76–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2012.02.016

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Liu ZW, Gao YZ, Zhou J (2019) Molecular authentication of the medicinal species of Ligusticum (Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix, “Gao-ben”) by integrating non-coding internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and its secondary structure. Front Plant Sci 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00429

  66. Luo K, Chen S, Chen KL, Song JY, Yao H, Ma X, Zhu YJ, Pang XH, Yu H, Li XW, Liu Z (2010) Assessment of candidate plant DNA barcodes using the Rutaceae family. Sci China Life Sci 53:701–708. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-010-4009-1

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Meimberg H, Rischer H, Turini FG, Chamchumroon V, Dreyer M, Sommaro M, Bringmann G, Heubl G (2010) Evidence for species differentiation within the Ancistrocladus tectorius complex (Ancistrocladaceae) in Southeast Asia: a molecular approach. Plant Syst Evol 284:77–98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-009-0241-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Meusnier I, Singer GAC, Landry JF, Hickey DA, Hebert PDN, Hajibabaei M (2008) A universal DNA mini-barcode for biodiversity analysis. BMC Genomics 9:4–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-9-214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Michel CI, Meyer RS, Taveras Y, Molina J (2016) The nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) as a practical plant DNA barcode for herbal medicines. J Appl Res Med Aromat Plants 3:94–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmap.2016.02.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Mishra P, Kumar A, Nagireddy A, Mani DN, Shukla AK, Tiwari R, Sundaresan V (2016) DNA barcoding: an efficient tool to overcome authentication challenges in the herbal market. Plant Biotechnol J 14:8–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12419

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Mishra P, Kumar A, Nagireddy A, Shukla AK, Sundaresan V (2017) Evaluation of single and multilocus DNA barcodes towards species delineation in complex tree genus Terminalia. PLoS One 12:e0182836. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182836

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  72. Mukhopadhyay M, Bantawa P, Mondal TK, Nandi SK (2016) Biological and phylogenetic advancements of Gaultheria fragrantissima: economically important oil bearing medicinal plant. Ind Crop Prod 81:91–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.11.042

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Naim DM, Mahboob S (2019) Molecular identification of herbal species belonging to genus Piper within family Piperaceae from northern Peninsular Malaysia. J King Saud Univ - Sci 32:1417–1426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2019.11.036

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Nguyen NH, Vu HT, Le ND, Nguyen TD, Duong HX, Tran HD (2020) Molecular identification and evaluation of the genetic diversity of Dendrobium species collected in southern Vietnam. Biology 9:76. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9040076

    CAS  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  75. Osathanunkul M, Madesis P (2019) Bar-HRM: a reliable and fast method for species identification of ginseng (Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng, Talinum paniculatum and Phytolacca americana). PeerJ:e7660. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7660

  76. Osathanunkul M, Suwannapoom C, Ounjai S, Rora JA, Madesis P, de Boer H (2015) Refining DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting for discrimination of 12 closely related Croton species. PLoS One 10:e0138888. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138888

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. Palais RA, Liew MA, Wittwer CT (2005) Quantitative heteroduplex analysis for single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. Anal Biochem 346:167–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2005.08.010

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Pang X, Song J, Zhu Y, Xie C, Chen S (2010) Using DNA barcoding to identify species within Euphorbiaceae. Planta Med 76:1784–1786. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1249806

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Parveen I, Gafner S, Techen N, Murch SJ, Khan IA (2016) DNA barcoding for the identification of botanicals in herbal medicine and dietary supplements: strengths and limitations. Planta Med 82:1225–1235. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-111208

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Parveen I, Techen N, Khan IA (2019) Identification of species in the aromatic spice family Apiaceae using DNA mini-barcodes. Planta Med 85:139–144. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0664-0947

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Petrovska BB (2012) Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage. Pharmacogn Rev 6:1–5. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.95849

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  82. Purushothaman N, Newmaster SG, Ragupathy S, Stalin N, Suresh D, Arunraj DR, Gnanasekaran G, Vassou SL, Narasimhan D, Parani M (2014) A tiered barcode authentication tool to differentiate medicinal Cassia species in India. Genet Mol Res 13:2959–2968. https://doi.org/10.4238/2014.April.16.4

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Raclariu AC, Heinrich M, Ichim MC, de Boer H (2018a) Benefits and limitations of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding in herbal product authentication. Phytochem Anal 29:123–128. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.2732

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Raclariu AC, Mocan A, Popa MO, Vlase L, Ichim MC, Crisan G, Brysting AK, de Boer H (2017a) Veronica officinalis product authentication using DNA metabarcoding and HPLC-MS reveals widespread adulteration with Veronica chamaedrys. Front Pharmacol 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00378

  85. Raclariu AC, Paltinean R, Vlase L, Labarre A, Manzanilla V, Ichim MC, Crisan G, Brysting AK, de Boer H (2017b) Comparative authentication of Hypericum perforatum herbal products using DNA metabarcoding, TLC and HPLC-MS. Sci Rep 7:1291. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01389-w

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  86. Raclariu AC, Ţebrencu CE, Ichim MC, Ciupercǎ OT, Brysting AK, de Boer H (2018b) What’s in the box? Authentication of Echinacea herbal products using DNA metabarcoding and HPTLC. Phytomedicine 44:32–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.03.058

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Rai PS, Bellampalli R, Dobriyal RM, Agarwal A, Satyamoorthy K, Narayana DBA (2012) DNA barcoding of authentic and substitute samples of herb of the family Asparagaceae and Asclepiadaceae based on the ITS2 region. J Ayurveda Integr Med 3:136–140. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.100177

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  88. Reed GH, Kent JO, Wittwer CT (2007) High-resolution DNA melting analysis for simple and efficient molecular diagnostics. Pharmacogenomics 8:597–608. https://doi.org/10.2217/14622416.8.6.597

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. Ren H, Lu L, Wang H, Li DZ (2011) DNA barcoding of Gaultheria L. in China (Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae). J Syst Evol 49:411–424. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2011.00152.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Sarwat M, Yamdagni MM (2014) DNA barcoding, microarrays and next generation sequencing: recent tools for genetic diversity estimation and authentication of medicinal plants. Crit Rev Biotechnol 36:191–203. https://doi.org/10.3109/07388551.2014.947563

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. Seethapathy GS, Balasubramani SP, Venkatasubramanian P (2014) nrDNA ITS sequence based SCAR marker to authenticate Aconitum heterophyllum and Cyperus rotundus in Ayurvedic raw drug source and prepared herbal products. Food Chem 145:1015–1020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.027

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. Selvaraj D, Shanmughanandhan D, Sarma RK, Joseph JC, Srinivasan RV, Ramalingam S (2012) DNA barcode ITS effectively distinguishes the medicinal plant Boerhavia diffusa from its adulterants. Genomics, Proteomics Bioinforma 10:364–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gpb.2012.03.002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Sharma A, Luis Folch J, Cardoso-Taketa A, Lorence A, Luisa Villarreal M (2012) DNA barcoding of the Mexican sedative and anxiolytic plant Galphimia glauca. J Ethnopharmacol 144:371–378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.09.022

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  94. Shi LC, Zhang J, Han JP, Song JY, Yao H, Zhu YJ, Li JC, Wang ZZ, Xiao W, Lin YL, Xie CX, Qian ZZ, Chen S (2011) Testing the potential of proposed DNA barcodes for species identification of Zingiberaceae. J Syst Evol 49:261–266. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2011.00133.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Shi Y, Zhao M, Yao H, Yang P, Xin T, Li B, Sun W, Chen S (2017) Rapidly discriminate commercial medicinal Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel from its adulterants using ITS2 barcoding and specific PCR-RFLP assay. Sci Rep 7:40000. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40000

  96. Singh H, Parveen I, Raghuvanshi S, Babbar SB (2012) The loci recommended as universal barcodes for plants on the basis of floristic studies may not work with congeneric species as exemplified by DNA barcoding of Dendrobium species. BMC Res Notes 5:42. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-5-42

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  97. Singtonat S, Osathanunkul M (2015) Fast and reliable detection of toxic Crotalaria spectabilis Roth. in Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. herbal products using DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med 15:162. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0692-6

  98. Strzemski M, Wójciak-Kosior M, Sowa I, Załuski D, Verpoorte R (2019) Historical and traditional medical applications of Carlina acaulis L. - a critical ethnopharmacological review. J Ethnopharmacol 239:111842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.111842

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. Suesatpanit T, Osathanunkul K, Madesis P, Osathanunkul M (2017) Should DNA sequence be incorporated with other taxonomical data for routine identifying of plant species? BMC Complement Altern Med 17:437. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1937-3

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  100. Sui XY, Huang Y, Tan Y, Guo Y, Long CL (2011) Molecular authentication of the ethnomedicinal plant Sabia parviflora and its adulterants by DNA barcoding technique. Planta Med 77:492–496. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1250468

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  101. Sun Z, Gao T, Yao H, Shi L, Zhu Y, Chen S (2011) Identification of Lonicera japonica and its related species using the DNA barcoding method. Planta Med 77:301–306. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1250324

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  102. Taberlet P, Coissac E, Pompanon F, Brochmann C, Willerslev E (2012) Towards next-generation biodiversity assessment using DNA metabarcoding. Mol Ecol 21:2045–2050

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Tanaka S, Ito M (2020) Species identification of Indonesian agarwood using a DNA-barcoding method. J Nat Med 74:323–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-019-01362-z

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  104. Techen N, Parveen I, Pan Z, Khan IA (2014) DNA barcoding of medicinal plant material for identification. Curr Opin Biotechnol 25:103–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2013.09.010

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  105. Thakur VV, Tiwari S, Tripathi N, Tiwari G (2019) Molecular identification of medicinal plants with amplicon length polymorphism using universal DNA barcodes of the atpF–atpH, trnL and trnH–psbA regions. 3 Biotech 9:188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1724-6

  106. Vassou SL, Kusuma G, Parani M (2015) DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia. Gene 559:86–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.01.025

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  107. Vassou SL, Nithaniyal S, Raju B, Parani M (2016) Creation of reference DNA barcode library and authentication of medicinal plant raw drugs used in Ayurvedic medicine. BMC Complement Altern Med 16:9–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1086-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Veldman S, Otieno J, Gravendeel B, van Andel T, de Boer H (2014) Conservation of endangered wild harvested medicinal plants: use of DNA barcoding. In: Gurib-Fakim A (ed) Novel plant bioresources: applications in food. Medicine and Cosmetics. JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd, pp 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118460566.ch6

    Google Scholar 

  109. Wang L, Kong W, Yang M, Han J, Chen S (2015) Safety issues and new rapid detection methods in traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Acta Pharm Sin B 5:38–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2014.12.005

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  110. Wang X, Xue J, Zhang Y, Xie H, Wang Y, Weng W, Kang Y, Huang J (2020) DNA barcodes for the identification of Stephania (Menispermaceae) species. Mol Biol Rep 47:2197–2203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05325-6

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  111. WHO (2011) Traditional medicines : global situation, issues and challenges. In: The world medicines situation 2011. WHO Press, Geneva, pp 1–14

    Google Scholar 

  112. Wittwer CT, Reed GH, Gundry CN, Vandersteen JG, Pryor RJ (2003) High-resolution genotyping by amplicon melting analysis using LCGreen. Clin Chem 49:853–860. https://doi.org/10.1373/49.6.853

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  113. Wong TH, But GWC, Wu HY, Tsang SSK, Lau DTW, Shaw PC (2018) Medicinal materials DNA Barcode Database (MMDBD) version 1.5 - one-stop solution for storage, BLAST, alignment and primer design. Database. https://doi.org/10.1093/database/bay112

  114. Wu F, Ma J, Meng Y, Zhang D, Muvunyi BP, Luo K, Di H, Guo W, Wang Y, Feng B, Zhang J (2017) Potential DNA barcodes for Melilotus species based on five single loci and their combinations. PLoS One 12:e0182693. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182693

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  115. Xiao WL, Motley TJ, Unachukwu UJ, Lau CBS, Jiang B, Hong F, Leung PC, Wang QF, Livingston PO, Cassileth BR, Kennelly EJ (2011) Chemical and genetic assessment of variability in commercial Radix Astragali (Astragalus spp.) by ion trap LC-MS and nuclear ribosomal DNA barcoding sequence analyses. J Agric Food Chem 59:1548–1556. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1028174

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  116. Yang Y, Zhai Y, Liu T, Zhang F, Ji Y (2011) Detection of Valeriana jatamansi as an adulterant of medicinal Paris by length variation of chloroplast psbA-trnH region. Planta Med 77:87–91. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1250072

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  117. Yao H, Song J, Liu C, Luo K, Han J, Li Y, Pang X, Xu H, Zhu Y, Xiao P, Chen S (2010) Use of ITS2 region as the universal DNA barcode for plants and animals. PLoS One 5:e13102. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013102

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  118. Yu N, Wei YL, Zhang X, Zhu N, Wang YL, Zhu Y, Zhang HP, Li FM, Yang L, Sun JQ, Sun AD (2017) Barcode ITS2: a useful tool for identifying Trachelospermum jasminoides and a good monitor for medicine market. Sci Rep 7:5037. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04674-w

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  119. Yuan WJ, Zhang WR, Han YJ, Dong MF, Shang FD (2010) Molecular phylogeny of Osmanthus (Oleaceae) based on non-coding chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions. J Syst Evol 48:482–489. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2010.00099.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Zarrei M, Talent N, Kuzmina M, Lee J, Lund J, Shipley PR, Stefanović S, Dickinson TA (2015) DNA barcodes from four loci provide poor resolution of taxonomic groups in the genus Crataegus. AoB Plants 7:plv045. https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plv045

  121. Zhang Z, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Yao H, Liu H, Zhang B, Liao Y (2016) Comparative analysis of DNA barcoding and HPLC fingerprint to trace species of Phellodendri cortex, an important traditional Chinese medicine from multiple sources. Biol Pharm Bull 39:1325–1330. https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b16-00210

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  122. Zhao S, Chen X, Song J, Pang X, Chen S (2015) Internal transcribed spacer 2 barcode: good tool for identifying Acanthopanacis cortex. Front Plant Sci 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00840

  123. Zhao LL, Feng SJ, Tian JY, Wei AZ, Yang TX (2018) Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) barcodes: a useful tool for identifying Chinese Zanthoxylum. Appl Plant Sci 6:e01157. https://doi.org/10.1002/aps3.1157

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  124. Zhao W, Liu M, Shen C, Liu H, Zhang Z, Dai W, Liu X, Liu J (2020) Differentiation, chemical profiles and quality evaluation of five medicinal Stephania species (Menispermaceae) through integrated DNA barcoding, HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and UHPLC-DAD. Fitoterapia 141:104453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104453

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  125. Zhu RW, Li YC, Zhong DL, Zhang JQ (2017) Establishment of the most comprehensive ITS2 barcode database to date of the traditional medicinal plant Rhodiola (Crassulacaee). Sci Rep 7:10051. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09769-y

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  126. Zuo Y, Chen Z, Kondo K, Funamoto T, Wen J, Zhou S (2011) DNA barcoding of Panax species. Planta Med 77:182–187. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1250166

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Reinier Gesto-Borroto wish to thank PRODEP-México for his postdoctoral fellowship at Laboratorio L1, Instituto de Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. The authors are grateful to Professor Rogelio Pereda-Miranda, Editor-in-Chief of Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, for his help in improving the original manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología CONACYT, Mexico (Grant 222714) to MLV, and by grants to AL from the College of Sciences and Mathematics at Arkansas State University (A-State), and by the Arkansas Biosciences Institute (ABI) and the Arkansas Research Alliance (ARA).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

RGB and KMJ carried out the literature search, prepared the first draft of the manuscript, and drew the figures. RGB, AL, and MLV revised the final draft of the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Argelia Lorence or María Luisa Villarreal.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Supplementary Information

Table S1

(PDF 1021 kb)

Table S2

(PDF 471 kb)

ESM 1

(PDF 287 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gesto-Borroto, R., Medina-Jiménez, K., Lorence, A. et al. Application of DNA Barcoding for Quality Control of Herbal Drugs and Their Phytopharmaceuticals. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43450-021-00128-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Medicinal plants
  • DNA barcoding
  • DNA mini-barcoding
  • Bar-HRM technique
  • Metabarcoding
  • Quality control