Few studies have explored the association between preoperative patient-reported measures and chronic opioid use following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. We sought to explore the association between preoperative duration of pain, as well as other patient-reported factors, and chronic opioid use after ASD surgery.
We retrospectively reviewed our U.S. academic tertiary care hospital’s database of ASD patients. We included patients 18 years or older who underwent arthrodesis of four or more spinal levels from January 2008 to February 2018, with 2-year follow-up. The primary outcome variable was chronic opioid use, defined as opioid use at both 1 and 2 years postoperatively. We analyzed patient characteristics; duration of preoperative pain (<4 years or ≥4 years); radiculopathy; preoperative Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS-22r) score; Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) value; and surgical characteristics.
Of 119 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 93 (78%) were women, and mean ± standard deviation age was 59 ± 13. Sixty patients (50%) reported preoperative opioid use, and 35 (29%) reported chronic opioid use. Preoperative opioid use was associated with higher odds of chronic use (adjusted odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval 1.6–21), as was preoperative pain duration of ≥4 years (adjusted odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval 1.1–9.8). Patient characteristics, surgical variables, ODI value, and SRS-22r score were not significantly associated with chronic postoperative opioid use.
Preoperative opioid use and duration of pain of ≥4 years were associated with higher odds of chronic opioid use after ASD surgery.
Level of Evidence