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Assessment of reliability and validity of the adapted Persian version of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the reliability and validity of the adapted Persian version of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (P-SAQ).

Methods

The stages of cross-cultural adaptation were conducted according to an internationally accepted guidelines. Reliability of the P-SAQ was measured by evaluating internal consistency and test–retest reproducibility using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Validity of the P-SAQ was assessed by factor analysis, and convergent and known-groups validities. Convergent validity was assessed through participant response on the P-SAQ and the revised 22-item Persian version of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22r) questionnaire. Known-groups validity was assessed by comparing the P-SAQ scores according to the patients curve magnitude and treatment type.

Results

A total of 106 patients with a diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) were included. The P-SAQ demonstrated an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach’s α of 0.77 (range 0.65–0.72). The test–retest reliability was excellent (range ICC 0.85–0.98). There was a correlation between the total score, average scores of the general, curve, rib prominence, kyphosis, and trunk shift subscales of the P-SAQ and subtotal and total scores of the SRS-22r, r = − 0.2 to − 0.4, p < 0.05. The P-SAQ discriminated between patients with differing Cobb angle magnitudes and treatment types (p < 0.01). Factor analysis supported the use of the appearance and expectations items as separate scales for the P-SAQ.

Conclusion

The P-SAQ is a valid and reliable tool that could be utilized to evaluate the perception of appearance for Persian-speaking AIS patients with different curve magnitude and treatment strategies.

Level of evidence

Level I- diagnostic studies.

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Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Code availability

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Vice Chancellor for Research (VCR) of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (97000098, 2018).

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TB: (1) made substantial contributions to the design of the work and analysis of data; (2) drafted the work; (3) approved the version to be published; and (4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. VM: (1) made substantial contributions to the conception of the work and interpretation of data; (2) revised the work critically for important intellectual content; (3) approved the version to be published; and (4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. NR: (1) made substantial contributions to the design of the work and the acquisition of data; (2) revised the work critically for important intellectual content; (3) approved the version to be published; and (4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. AS (1) made substantial contributions to the design of the work and interpretation of data; (2) revised the work critically for important intellectual content; (3) approved the version to be published; and (4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. JP-N: (1) made substantial contributions to the interpretation of data; (2) revised the work critically for important intellectual content; (3) approved the version to be published; and (4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. HS: (1) made substantial contributions to the design of the work; (2) revised the work critically for important intellectual content; (3) approved the version to be published; and (4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. MN: (1) made substantial contributions to the design of the work; (2) revised the work critically for important intellectual content; (3) approved the version to be published; and (4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Masoomeh Nakhaee.

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There is no conflict of interest about the study.

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The study protocol was approved by the research ethics committee of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (IR.KUMS.REC.1397.140). The Manuscript submitted does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s).

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Babaee, T., Moradi, V., Rouhani, N. et al. Assessment of reliability and validity of the adapted Persian version of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine Deform (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00414-3

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Keywords

  • Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
  • Spinal appearance questionnaire
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Self-image
  • Appearance