Skip to main content

Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee—second edition


An updated version of the checklist of birds of Brazil is presented, along with a summary of the changes approved by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee’s Taxonomy Subcommittee since the first edition, published in 2015. In total, 1971 bird species occurring in Brazil are supported by documentary evidence and are admitted to the Primary List, 4.3% more than in the previous edition. Eleven additional species are known only from undocumented records (Secondary List). For each species on the Primary List, status of occurrence in the country is provided and, in the case of polytypic species, the respective subspecies present in Brazilian territory are listed. Explanatory notes cover taxonomic changes, nomenclatural corrections, new occurrences, and other changes implemented since the last edition. Ninety species are added to the Primary List as a result of species descriptions, new occurrences, taxonomic splits, and transfers from the Secondary List due to the availability of documentation. In contrast, eight species are synonymized or assigned subspecific status and thus removed from the Primary List. In all, 293 species are endemic to Brazil, ranked third among the countries with the highest rate of bird endemism. The Brazilian avifauna currently consists of 1742 residents or breeding migrants, 126 seasonal non-breeding visitors, and 103 vagrants. The category of vagrants showed the greatest increase (56%) compared to the previous list, mainly due to new occurrences documented in recent years by citizen scientists. The list updates the diversity, systematics, taxonomy, scientific and vernacular nomenclature, and occurrence status of birds in Brazil.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Data availability

An Excel worksheet of the checklist is publicly available in the Zenodo repository.


  1. Aleixo A (2007) Conceitos de espécie e o eterno conflito entre continuidade e operacionalidade: uma proposta de normatização de critérios para o reconhecimento de espécies pelo Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. Rev Bras Ornitol 15:297–310

    Google Scholar 

  2. Carlos CJ, Straube FC, Pacheco JF (2010) Conceitos e definições sobre documentação de registros ornitológicos e critérios para a elaboração de listas de aves para os estados brasileiros. Rev Bras Ornitol 18:355–361

    Google Scholar 

  3. Carvalho GLC (1999) O mar territorial brasileiro de 200 milhas: estratégia e soberania, 1970–1982. Rev Bras Polit Int 42:110–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Clements JF, Schulenberg TS, Iliff MJ, Billerman SM, Fredericks TA, Sullivan BL, Wood CL (2019) The eBird/Clements Checklist of Birds of the World: v2019. Accessed 30 September 2020

  5. de Queiroz K (2005) Ernst Mayr and the modern concept of species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:6600–6607.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. del Hoyo J, Collar NJ, Christie DA, Elliot A, Fishpool LDC (2014) HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world, vol. 1, non-passerines. Lynx Editions, Barcelona

    Google Scholar 

  7. del Hoyo J, Collar NJ, Christie DA, Elliot A, Fishpool LDC, Boesman P, Kirwan GM (2016) HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world, vol. 2 Passerines. Lynx Editions, Barcelona

    Google Scholar 

  8. del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J, Cabot J, Christie DA (eds) (1992-2013) Handbook of the birds of the world, 17 vols. Lynx Editions, Barcelona

  9. Dickinson EC, Christidis L (2014) The Howard & Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world, vol. 2, passerines. Aves Press, Eastbourne

    Google Scholar 

  10. Dickinson EC, Remsen JV (2013) The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world, vol. 1, non-passerines. Aves Press, Eastbourne

    Google Scholar 

  11. Fattorini S (2017) Endemism in historical biogeography and conservation biology: concepts and implications. Biogeographia 32:47–75

    Google Scholar 

  12. Franz I, Agne CE, Bencke GA, Bugoni L, Dias RA (2018) Four decades after Belton: a review of records and evidences on the avifauna of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Iheringia, Ser Zool 108:1–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Fuchs J, Pons J-M (2015) A new classification of the Pied Woodpeckers assemblage (Dendropicini, Picidae) based on a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny. Mol Phylogenet Evol 88:28–37.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Gill F (2014) Species taxonomy of birds: which null hypothesis? Auk 131:150–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Gill F, Donsker D, Rasmussen P (eds) (2020) IOC world bird list (v10.2).

  16. Grantsau R (2010) Guia completo para identificação das aves do Brasil, 2 vols. Vento Verde, São Carlos

    Google Scholar 

  17. Hellmayr CE (1927) Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands, Part V. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

  18. ICMBio [Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade] (2018) Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção, vol I/1. ICMBio, Brasília

  19. ICZN [International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature] (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th edn. ICZN, London

    Google Scholar 

  20. IUCN [International Union for Conservation of Nature] (2020) The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2020–3. Accessed 27 February 2021

  21. Lima B, Kamada B (2009) Registros de corvo-bicolor Corvus albus (Passeriformes: Corvidae) em território brasileiro. Atualidades Ornitol 150:10–11

    Google Scholar 

  22. Mallet-Rodrigues F, Gonzaga LP (2015) Geographic variation in plumage coloration of Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana (Linnaeus, 1766). Rev Bras Ornitol 23:341–350.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Manthey JD, Campillo LC, Burns KJ, Moyle RG (2016) Comparison of target-capture and restriction-site associated DNA sequencing for phylogenomics: a test in cardinalid tanagers (Aves, Genus: Piranga). Syst Biol 65:640–650.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Marra PP, Cohen E, Harrison A-L (2018) Migratory connectivity. In: Choe J (ed) Encyclopedia of animal behavior, 2nd edn. Academic Press, Cambridge.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  25. Musher LJ, Cracraft J (2018) Phylogenomics and species delimitation of a complex radiation of Neotropical suboscine birds (Pachyramphus). Mol Phylogenet Evol 118:204–221.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Nunes AP, Straube FC, Laps RR, Posso SR (2017) Checklist das aves do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Iheringia, Ser Zool 107:e2017154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Ohlson JI, Irestedt M, Ericson PGP, Fjeldså J (2013) Phylogeny and classification of the New World suboscines (Aves Passeriformes). Zootaxa 3613:1–35.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Ottenburghs J, Kraus RHS, van Hooft P, van Wieren SE, Ydenberg RC, Prins HHT (2017) Avian introgression in the genomic era. Avian Res 8:30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Padial JM, De la Riva I (2020) A paradigm shift in our view of species drives current trends in biological classification. Biol Rev 96:731–751.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Peterson AT, Watson DM (1998) Problems with areal definitions of endemism: the effects of spatial scaling. Divers Distrib 4:189–194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Piacentini VQ, Aleixo A, Agne CE, Maurício GN, Pacheco JF, Bravo GA, Brito GRR, Naka LN, Olmos F, Posso S, Silveira LF, Betini GS, Carrano E, Franz I, Lees AC, Lima LM, Pioli D, Schunck F, Amaral FR, Bencke GA, Cohn-Haft M, Figueiredo LFA, Straube FC, Cesari E (2015) Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee. Rev Bras Ornitol 23:91–298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Remsen JV, Areta JI, Bonaccorso E, Claramunt S, Jaramillo A, Pacheco JF, Robbins MB, Stiles FG, Stotz DF, Zimmer KJ (2021) A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithological Society. Version: 19 January 2021.

  33. Ridgway R (1901) The birds of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the higher groups, genera, species, and subspecies of birds known to occur in North America, from the Arctic lands to the Isthmus of Panama, the West Indies and other islands of the Caribbean sea, and the Galapagos Archipelago. Pt 1. Bull US Natl Mus 50:1–715

    Google Scholar 

  34. Sangster G (2018) Integrative taxonomy of birds: the nature and delimitation of species. In: Tietze D (ed) Bird species. Fascinating life sciences. Springer, Cham.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  35. Schultz ED, Pérez-Emán J, Aleixo A, Myiaki CY, Brumfield RT, Cracraft J, Ribas CC (2019) Diversification history in the Dendrocincla fuliginosa complex (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae): insights from broad geographic sampling. Mol Phylogenet Evol 140:106581.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Serpa GA (2008) Primeiros registros da introdução e reprodução do Bulbul-de-bigode-vermelho Pycnonotus jocosus (Pycnonotidae) em território brasileiro. Atualidades Ornitol 141:12–13

    Google Scholar 

  37. Sick H (1997) Ornitologia brasileira. Nova Fronteira, Rio de Janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  38. Silva FC, Pinto JM, Mäder A, Souza VAT (2017) First records of European Starling Sturnus vulgaris in Brazil. Rev Bras Ornitol 25:291–292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Silva e Silva R, Olmos F (2007) Adendas e registros significativos para a avifauna dos manguezais de Santos e Cubatão, SP. Rev Bras Ornitol 15:551–560

    Google Scholar 

  40. Straube FC (2003) Bases legais para a identificação dos limites territoriais do Brasil na fronteira com o Paraguai e suas implicações para a consideração de registros ornitológicos. Ararajuba 11:131–135

    Google Scholar 

  41. Tello JG, Moyle RG, Marchese DJ, Cracraft J (2009) Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannides). Cladistics 25:429–467.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We dedicate this new edition of the Annotated Checklist of the birds of Brazil to the memory of Walter Adolfo Voss (1933–2020), honorary member of the CBRO. We thank the following friends and colleagues who have pointed out inconsistencies in previous versions of the checklist: Bret M. Whitney, Guy M. Kirwan, J.V. Remsen, Jeremy Minns, Luis A. Florit, Normand David, Rafael D. Lima, Weber Girão, and, especially, for her meticulous review, Summer V. Wilson. Many other individuals generously provided unpublished information that significantly contributed to the work of the Subcommittee on Taxonomy and for the preparation of the explanatory notes (the species involved are mentioned after each name): Albano Schulz Neto (Platalea leucorodia), Andrew Whittaker (Muscisaxicola maculirostris), Antônio C. de Brum (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), Arthur Gomes (Contopus sordidulus), Brad Winn (Limnodromus griseus hendersoni), Bret M. Whitney (Cacicus koepckeae, Leiothlypis peregrina, Cypseloides niger), Carlos O. A. Gussoni (Icterus galbula), Chris Farias (M. maculirostris), Dante R. C. Buzzetti (C. koepckeae, Phyllomyias weedeni), Fernanda Hoppen (Tringa totanus), Fernando Díaz Segovia (M. maculirostris), Gabriel A. Leite (C. sordidulus, Phaethornis atrimentalis), John Thompson (I. galbula), Marcelo Holderbaum (Limosa fedoa), Márcio Repenning (Sporophila iberaensis), Michael O’Brien (L. g. hendersoni), Renata N. Biancalana (Chaetura pelagica), Ronaldo Lebowski (Mniotilta varia), and Sergio R. Porto (Calidris mauri). We also thank Thiago Vernaschi, Summer V. Wilson, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful corrections and suggestions, which significantly improved the manuscript of this new edition of the checklist. Finally, the following funding agencies supported several of us with both fellowships and research grants, which were essential to complete successfully the present work: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).


Some of the authors received support from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to José Fernando Pacheco.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Communicated by L. Bugoni

Supplementary Information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pacheco, J.F., Silveira, L.F., Aleixo, A. et al. Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee—second edition. Ornithol. Res. 29, 94–105 (2021).

Download citation


  • Biodiversity
  • Classification
  • Endemism
  • Species list
  • Subspecies
  • Taxonomy