Skip to main content
Log in

Applied sequence stratigraphy and heterogeneity assessment of the Eocene clastics in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

  • Research
  • Published:
Journal of Sedimentary Environments Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The discovery of oil in the inland basins of Nigeria has prompted the search for optimal reservoir rocks in the outcropping units of the Niger Delta Basin for potential hydrocarbon prospectivity and utilization. The petrophysical properties of clastics in the Nsugbe-Umunya area was, therefore, evaluated in a sequence stratigraphic framework in order to comprehend reservoir quality and distribution. The analysis integrated lithofacies, stacking patterns, and biofacies data to interpret depositional environment, which formed the basis for sequence stratigraphic interpretation. Lithofacies analysis identified distinct fluvial signatures of the—floodplain/overbank processes as well as and marginal-shallow marine processes. Sequence stratigraphic application delineated two systems tracts: the Highstand Systems Tract (HST), truncated by a subaerial unconformity (Sequence Boundary; SB), and the Transgressive Systems Tract (TST). Petrophysical properties of the identified systems tracts were evaluated using the Porosity–Permeability (P-K) plots and Flow Zone Indicator (FZI) analysis, utilizing the Dykstra-Parson Coefficient model. The P-K plots revealed that HST sands exhibited smaller grain sizes and pore spaces. The HST sands also demonstrated high interconnectivity amongst seven (7) flow units according to SML and FZI plots, thus yielding a negligible reservoir heterogeneity index (VK) of 0.6. Conversely, the TST sands showed less connectivity and greater heterogeneity, with VK = 0.8, with 13 and 5 flow units according to SML and FZI plots, respectively. These findings in the TST sands suggest the presence of materials capable of inhibiting fluid flow. In conclusion, sands within the HST displayed better reservoir qualities due to superior grain size, interconnectivity and homogeneity, emphasizing their better prospects as potential reservoir units.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

(Adapted from Wright, 1981)

Fig. 2

(Adapted from Murat, 1970)

Fig. 3

(Adapted from NGSA, 2004)

Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

Modified from Tiab and Donaldson (2004)

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

Data is available upon request.

References

  • Adegoke, O. S. (1969). Eocene stratigraphy of southern Nigeria. Bulletining Bureau de Research Geologic ET Miners Memoir, 69, 23–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Amaefule, J. O., Altunbay, M. H., Tiab, D. J., Kersey, D. G., & Keelan, D. K. (1993). Enhanced reservoir description using core and log data to identify hydraulic (flow) units and predict permeability in uncored intervals/well. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/26436-MS

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arua, I. (1980). Paleocene macrofossils from the Imo Shale in Anambra State. Journal of Mining and Geology, 17, 81–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burke, K. (1972). Longshore drift, submarine canyons, and submarine fans in development of Niger Delta. AAPG Bulletin, 56(10), 1975–1983. https://doi.org/10.1306/819A41A2-16C5-11D7-8645000102C1865D

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Catuneanu, O. (2002). Sequence stratigraphy of clastic systems: Concepts, merits, and pitfalls. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 35, 1–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-5362(02)00004-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Doust, H., & Omatsola, M. (1990). Petroleum geology of the Niger Delta. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 50(1), 365–365. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1990.050.01.21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dutton, S. P., & Loucks, R. G. (2010). Diagenetic controls on evolution of porosity and permeability in lower Tertiary Wilcox sandstones from shallow to ultradeep (200e6700 m) burial, Gulf of Mexico Basin, U.S.A. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27, 69–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.08.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gunter, G. W., Finneran, J. M., Hartmann, D. J., & Miller, J. D. (1997). Early determination of reservoir flow units using an integrated petrophysical method. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 38679, 373–380. https://doi.org/10.2118/38679-MS

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hammer, E., Mørk, M. B. E., & Næss, A. (2010). Facies controls on the distribution of diagenesis and compaction in fluvial-deltaic deposits. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27(8), 1737–1751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.11.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hsu, K. J. (1977). Studies of ventura field, California, II lithology, compaction and permeability of sands. AAPG Bulletin, 61, 169–191. https://doi.org/10.1306/C1EA3C1C-16C9-11D7-8645000102C1865D

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ikoro, D. O., Amajor, L. C., Iwuagwu, C. J., Ubechu, B., Israel, H. O., Onyekuru, S. O., et al. (2014). Pebble morphometric analysis as aid to environmental determination, a case study of ajali sandstone in nkpologu southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Trends in Engineering and Development, 4(3), 812–828. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nnamdi-Ekeocha/publication/274639365_

    Google Scholar 

  • Ketzer, J. M., Holz, M., Morad, S., & Al-Aasm, I. S. (2003). Sequence stratigraphic distribution of diagenetic alterations in coal-bearing, paralic sandstones: Evidence from the Rio Bonito Formation (early Permian), southern Brazil. Sedimentology, 50(5), 855–877. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3091.2003.00586.x

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, J. C., Lee, Y. I., & Hisada, K. I. (2007). Depositional and compositional controls on sandstone diagenesis, the Tetori Group (Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), central Japan. Sedimentary Geology, 195(3–4), 183–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2006.08.011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lima, R. D., & De Ros, L. F. (2002). The role of depositional setting and diagenesis on the reservoir quality of Devonian sandstones from the Solimões Basin Brazilian Amazonia. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19(9), 1047–1071. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-8172(03)00002-3

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Magoon, L. B., & Dow, W. G. (1994). The petroleum system. In L. B. Magoon & W. G. Dow (Eds.), The petroleum system—from source to trap: AAPG Memoir (pp. 3–24). American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Miall, A. D. (2006). Geology of fluvial deposits: Sedimentary facies, basin analysis and petroleum geology (4th ed.). Springer.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Morad, S., Ketzer, J. M., & De Ros, L. F. (2000). Spatial and temporal distribution of diagenetic alterations in siliciclastic rocks: implications for mass transfer in sedimentary basins. Sedimentology, 47, 95–120. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3091.2000.00007.x

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Murat, R. C. (1970). Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria. In T. F. G. Dessauvagie & A. J. Whiteman (Eds.), African Geology (pp. 251–266). Department of Geology, University of Ibadan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murat, R. C. (1972). Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria. African Geology, 1(1), 251–266.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nichole, G. (2009). Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy (4th ed.). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nwachukwu, S. O. (1972). The tectonic evolution of the the southern portion of the Benue Trough Nigeria. Geological Magazine, 109(5), 411–419. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800039790

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nwachukwu, U. E. D., Anyiam, O. A., Egbu, O. C., & Obi, I. S. (2011). Sedimentary controls on the reservoir properties of the Paleogene fluvio-tidal sands of the Anambra Basin, southeastern Nigeria: Implication for deepwater reservoir studies. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2(1), 37–48. https://doi.org/10.5251/ajsir.2011.2.1.3748

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nwajide, C. S. (1980). Eocene tidal sedimentation in the Anambra Basin, southern Nigeria. Sedimentary Geology, 25(3), 189–207.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nwajide, C. S. (2006). Anambra Basin of Nigeria: Synoptic basin analysis as a basis for evaluating its hydrocarbon prospectivity. In C. O. Okugbue (Ed.), Hydrocarbon potentials of the Anambra Basin: Geology, geochemistry and geohistory perspectives. In proceeding of the first seminar organized by the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF) chair in Geology (pp. 1–46). University of Nigeria.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nzekwe, I. E., & Okoro, A. U. (2016). Organic and trace element geochemistry of the Ameki formation southeastern Nigeria: Implications and hydrocarbon generating potential. IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics, 4, 12–20. https://doi.org/10.9790/0990-0404011220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Obi, G. C., Okogbue, C. O., & Nwajide, C. S. (2001). Evolution of the Enugu Cuesta: A tectonically driven erosional process. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 321–330.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ogala, J. E., Ola-Buraimo, A. O., & Akaegbobi, I. M. (2009). Palynological and palaeoenvironmental study of the middle-upper Maastrichtian Mamu coal facies in Anambra Basin Nigeria. World Applied Sciences Journal, 7(12), 1566–1575.

    Google Scholar 

  • Okeke, K. K., Osterloff, P., & Ukeri, P. (2021). Sequence stratigraphical interpretation of the Paleocene to Miocene (Selandian–Aquitanian) palynofacies framework of the Niger delta basin, southeastern Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 178, 104158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2021.104158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olubayo, L.B. (2010). The main oil source formations of the Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. In AAPG International Convention & Exhibition, September, pp. 12–15

  • Onyekuru, S. O., Achukwu-Ononye, O. U., Ukpong, A. J., Ofoh, I. J., Ibeneme, S. I., Ibe, K. K., & Anyanwu, T. C. (2023). Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment (s) of the Late Cretaceous deposits in Ohafia area, Afikpo Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 197, 104713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2022.104713

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyekuru, S. O., Iwuagwu, C. J., Okenyi, J., Opara, K. D., & Nwigbo, U. N. (2019). Characterization of the Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Ikpankwu-Ihube Axis, Okigwe, Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Geosciences, 10(6), 724–744. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2019.106041

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Onyekuru, S. O., Iwuagwu, J. C., Ulasi, A., Ibeneme, I. S., Ukaonu, C., Okoli, E. A., & Akakuru, O. (2021). Calibration of petrophysical evaluation results of clastic reservoirs using core data, in the offshore depobelt, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-021-01285-3

  • Onyekuru, S. O., Iwuoha, P. O., Iwuagwu, C. J., Nwozor, K. K., & Opara, K. D. (2018). Mineralogical and geochemical properties of clay deposits in parts of Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 13(14), 217–229. https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPS/article-full-text/175148B57958

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Onyekuru, S. O., Okoro, E. M., Opara, K. D., Agumanu, A. E., & Ikoro, D. O. (2017). Paleoenvironment and provenance studies of Ajali Sandstone in Igbere Area, Afikpo Basin, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering and Science, 6, 19–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petters, S. W., & Ekweozor, C. M. (1982). Petroleum geology of Benue trough and southeastern Chad basin, Nigeria. AAPG Bulletin, 66(8), 1141–1149. https://doi.org/10.1306/03B5A65B-16D1-11D7-8645000102C1865D

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Posamentier, H. W., & Allen, G. P. (1999). Siliciclastic sequence stratigraphy concepts and application. Concepts in Sedimentology. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 7, 210.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reading, H. G. (1986). Sedimentary environments and facies (2nd ed.). Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reijers, T. J. A., Petters, S. W., & Nwajide, C. S. (1997). The Niger delta basin. In Sedimentary basins of the world (Vol. 3, pp. 151–172). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1874-5997(97)80010-X

    Google Scholar 

  • Reyment, R. A. (1965). Aspects of the geology of Nigeria: the stratigraphy of the cretaceous and cenozoic deposits (p. 145). Ibadan University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, K. G., Gawthorpe, R. L., Curtis, C. D., Marshall, J. D., & Awwiller, D. N. (2000). Carbonate cementation in a sequence-stratigraphic framework: Upper Cretaceous sandstones, Book Cliffs Utah-Colorado. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 70(2), 360–372. https://doi.org/10.1306/2DC40916-0E47-11D7-8643000102C1865D

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiab, D.J., & Donaldson, E.C. (2004). Petrophysics- Theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport properties.

  • Ukaonu, C. E., Onyekuru, S. O., & Ikoro, D. O. (2017). Facies architecture and reservoir properties of Campanian-Maastrichtian Nkporo Formation in the Anambra Basin, Nigeria. Scientific Research Journal, 5, 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Umeji, O. P. (2010). Palynostratigraphy sequence stratigraphy and Palaeoecology of Campanian-Maastrichtian Nkporo Group in Afikpo-4well, Afikpo Syncline, Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 46(1), 93–112. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/ObianujuUmeji/publication/303348132_Palynostratigraphy_sequence_stratigraphy_and_Palaeoecology_of_Campanian-Maastrichtian_Nkporo_Group_in_Afikpo-

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Wagoner, J. C., Mitchum Jr, R. N., Capion, K. M., & Rahmanian, V. T. (1990). siliciclastic sequence stratigraphy in well logs, cores and outcrops for high-resolution correlation or the time facies. American Association of Petroleum Methods in Exploration Series, 7, 55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vukovic, M., & Soro, A. (1992). Determination of hydraulic conductivity of porous media from grain size composition. Water Resources Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whiteman, A. J. (1982). Nigeria: Its Petroleum Resources and Potentials. 1 & 2. Graham and Trotman. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-7361-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wright, J. B. (1981). Review of the origin and evolution of the benue trough in Nigeria earth revolution of the benue trough in Nigeria. Earth Evolution Science, 1, 98–103.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

SO and DJ: Proposed and conceptualized the title of the manuscript, sourced information, wrote the main text and created a thorough structure for the manuscript. JC, VI and CJ: Reviewed, proofread and edited the manuscript text. The final manuscript has been read and approved by all of the authors.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to S. O. Onyekuru or V. I. Fagorite.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Communicated by Maria Virginia Alves Martins

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Onyekuru, S.O., Anyanwu, D.J., Ezekiel, J. et al. Applied sequence stratigraphy and heterogeneity assessment of the Eocene clastics in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. J. Sediment. Environ. 9, 297–315 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43217-023-00163-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43217-023-00163-5

Keywords

Navigation