Skip to main content

Characteristics of artificial aggregates employing self-hydraulic fly ash


Due to the instability of the aggregate supply and demand chain, it is expected that the price of aggregate will increase, consequently increasing construction expenses. Therefore, achieving a stable aggregate supply and demand chain by developing alternative aggregates and implementing environmentally friendly aggregate collection plans that do not affect the natural ecosystem are mandatory. To address the issues of natural aggregate shortage and treating circulating fluidized bed boiler fly ash (CFBA), an artificial aggregate was manufactured by using CFBA with BFS and MT added AA, as a possible replacement for natural aggregate. The optimum artificial aggregate mix had a specific gravity of 2.47 and a water absorption rate of 4.05% after aging for 28 days. Over time, the number of gel pores in the artificial aggregate increases, and the porosity decreases. In other words, C–S–H formation in CFBA causes the size of the large pores that appear in the initial hydration to decline, attributed to the continuously generated C–S–H, and hence the number of gel pores increases, leading to a decrease in the porosity. XRD measurement of the artificial aggregate confirmed the presence of calcium silicate (C–S–H), calcium aluminosilicate (C–S–A–H), Al2O3–Fe2O3–mono, and calcium hydride. Comparing the compressive strength of ISO standard aggregate mortar and manufactured artificial aggregate mortar, the initial compressive strength of CFBA was ~ 80% of that of the standard aggregates; however, the compressive strength of CFBA increased with aging. As a result of synthesizing an artificial aggregate using self-hydric FA, it is possible to use some substitution of natural aggregate.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. 1.

    S.J. Choi, Y.U. Kim, D.B. Kim, Analysis of the trends of supply and demand of aggregate in the Southeastern region of South Korea. J. Korea Inst. Build. Constr. 18(1), 324–325 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    S.H. Lee, Aggregate shock and sustainable aggregate supply and supply measures. Korea Cem. Assoc. 163, 14–19 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    K.W. Kang, S.M. Choi, J.M. Kim, Supply–demand forecast and development direction for aggregate. J. Korea Inst. Build. Constr. 18(1), 332–333 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    J.S. Kim, J.M. Lee, D.W. Kim, T.H. Kim, A study on design characteristics of Yeosu circulating fluidized bed boiler. J. Korea Concr. Inst. 16(1), 1–7 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    K.J. Mun, S.J. Kwon, Construction materials utilizing byproduct from circulating fluidized bed boiler. J. Korean Recycl. Constr. Res. Inst. 9(3), 8–12 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    N. Ghazali, K. Muthusamy, S.W. Ahmad, Utilization of fly ash in construction. Mater. Sci. Eng. (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Ch.S. Lim, K.G. Lee, Grinding method for increasing specific surface area of fluidized bed fly ash. J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 56(2), 153–159 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    E.D. Jeong, Co-combustion characteristics of mixed coal with anthracite and bituminous in a circulating fluidized bed. J. Plant 6(2), 70–77 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    N.S. Ahn, J.H. Lee, Y.H. Lee, Sulfate attack according to the quantity of composition of cement and mineral admixtures. J. Korea Inst. Build. Constr. 11(6), 547–556 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    S.H. Hong, B.D. Lee, S.H. Han, Application of fly ash concrete in the pavement. J. Korea Concr. Inst. 20(1), 701–704 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    H.S. Lim, H.S. Lee, K.H. Yang, S.J. Kwon, Quantitative evaluation of free CaO in electric furnace slag considering temperature and aging periods. J. Ceram. Process. Res. 20(1), 35–40 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J.H. Seo, C.S. Baek, Y.J. Kim, M.K. Choi, K.H. Cho, J.W. Ahn, Study on the free CaO analysis of coal ash in the domestic circulating fluidized bed combustion using ethylene glycol method. J. Energy Eng. 26(1), 1–8 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    H.S. Lim, H.S. Lee, An Experimental study on the free CaO quantitative analysis in the aging period of the electric arc furnace slag. Korea Concr. Inst. 26(1), 349–350 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    KSM1415 “Sodium silicate liquid” Korean Standards Association: Seoul, South Korea (2017)

  15. 15.

    Y. Li, H. Lin, Z. Wang, Quantitative analysis of fly ash in hardened cement paste. Constr. Build. Mater. 153, 139–145 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Q. Zeng, K. Li, T. Fen-chong, P. Dangla, Pore structure characterization of cement pastes blended with high volume fly-ash. Cem. Concr. Res. 42(1), 194–204 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    A. Terzie, L. Pezo, V. Mitic, Z. Radojevic, Artificial fly ash based aggregates properties influence on lightweight concrete performances. Ceram. Int. 41(2), 2714–2726 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    A. Kudzma, J. Skamat, R. Stonys, A. Krasnikovs, D. Kuznetsov, G. Girskas, V. Antonovic, Study on the effect of graphene oxide with low oxygen content on Portland cement-based composites. Materials 12(5), 802 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    J.H. Kim, H.S. Lee, Improvement of early strength of cement mortar containing granulated blast furnace slag using industrial byproducts. Materials 10(9), 1050 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    M.D. Andersen, H.J. Jakobsen, J. Skibsted, Characterization of white Portland cement hydration and the C-S-H structure in the presence of sodium aluminate by 27Al and 29SiMAS NMR spectroscopy. Cem. Concr. Res. 34(5), 857–868 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    S.H. Lee, G.S. Kim, Self-cementitious hydration of circulation fluidized bed combustion fly ash. J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 54(2), 128–136 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Q. Li, Xu. Hui, F. Li, Synthesis of geopolymer composites from blends of CFBC fly ash bottom ashes. Fuel 97, 366–372 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Myong-Shin Song or Kyung-Nam Kim.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lee, WG., Song, MS. & Kim, KN. Characteristics of artificial aggregates employing self-hydraulic fly ash. J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 58, 590–597 (2021).

Download citation


  • CFBA
  • Artificial aggregate
  • Porosity
  • Calcium silicate
  • Gel pore