c-zirconia ceramic composites have been synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique from commercial m-ZrO2, Y2O3 and waste-derived magnesium aluminate spinel (MA) powders. In this study, effect of MA addition on stabilization and reinforcement of 5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was carefully investigated. Spark plasma sintering of designed powder mixtures at 1400 °C for 30 min and 40 MPa produce fully dense compacts with an average grain size of 0.5–10 μm. The pressure was gradually increased up to 40 MPa using argon gas and was kept until the end of the sintering process. The refined microstructure (0.5–10 μm) obtained in this study has achieved superior compaction resistance values that are ten times more than strength values of conventionally sintered specimens. Such improvement in compaction resistance of the sintered specimens was attributed to particle size refinement and grain boundary enhancement. What’s more, spark-plasma sintered composites containing 10–50 wt% MA revealed higher resistance to low temperature degradation (LTD) than the reference composite that doesn’t contain MA spinel; where about ~ 2.8% of t-ZrO2 was converted into m-ZrO2 in case of the latter composite while aging test didn’t influence at all on the structure of the former composites. The outcomes indicated that MA has a significant effect on m-ZrO2 stabilization into a cubic phase structure that concurrently owned an enhanced and comparable compression resistance to Yttrium-doped t-ZrO2 (Y-TZP). In this respect, the ternary oxide ceramic composite systems prepared in this study present huge potential for development c-ZrO2-based industrial ceramics with a wide spectrum of mechanical characteristics for high-tech engineering applications of harsh-stress and humid environments.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
S. Saridag, O. Tak, G. Alniacik, Basic properties and types of zirconia: an overview. World J. Stomatol. 2(3), 40 (2013)
M.E. Roy, O.F. Noel, L.A. Whiteside, Phase transformation and roughening in artificially aged and retrieved zirconia-toughened alumina femoral heads. J. Arthroplasty 34(4), 772–780 (2019)
T. Maridurai, D. Balaji, S. Sagadevan, Synthesis and characterization of yttrium stabilized zirconia nanoparticles. Mater. Res. 19(4), 812–816 (2016)
C. Betül, E. Abi, E. Gamze Yazici, Effects of magnesium chloride addition on stabilization of zirconia. Acad J Sci 3(2), 177–185 (2014)
J. Grech, E. Antunes, Zirconia in dental prosthetics: a literature review. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 8(5), 4956–4964 (2019)
Y.S. Oh, S.W. Kim, S.M. Lee, H.T. Kim, M.S. Kim, H.S. Moon, Effect of the raw material and coating process conditions on the densification of 8 wt% Y2O3-ZrO2 thermal barrier coating by atmospheric plasma spray. J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 53(6), 628–634 (2016)
U.B. Pal, A.C. Powell, The use of solid-oxide-membrane technology for electrometallurgy. JOM 59(5), 44–49 (2007)
K. Wisniewska, D. Madej, J. Szczerba, The corrosion of Mg-partially stabilized zirconia during service in continuous casting tundish. J. Ceram. Sci. Technol. 9(3), 301–308 (2018)
F.F. Lange, G.L. Dunlop, B.I. Davis, Degradation during aging of transformation-toughened ZrO2-Y2O3 materials at 250°C. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69(3), 237–240 (1986)
M. Yoshimura, T. Noma, K. Kawabata, S. Sōmiya, Hydrothermal Reactions for Materials Science and Engineering (Springer, Netherlands, 1989), pp. 396–398
J. Chevalier, L. Gremillard, A.V. Virkar, D.R. Clarke, The tetragonal-monoclinic transformation in zirconia: lessons learned and future trends. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(9), 1901–1920 (2009)
M. Abdelgawad, S. Li, E.M.M. Ewais, S.M.A. El-Gamal, X. Hou, X. Zhang, D. Pan, A.A.M. El-Amir, Highly-stable, nondegradable M2A-reinforced YSZ ceramic composites prepared by SPS. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 18(2), 472–482 (2020)
A.A.M. El-Amir, M. Abdelgawad, S. Li, E.M.M. Ewais, S.M.A. El-Gamal, Effect of waste-derived MA spinel on sintering and stabilization behavior of partially stabilized double phase zirconia. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 18(1), 203–212 (2021)
E. Apel, C. Ritzberger, N. Courtois, H. Reveron, J. Chevalier, M. Schweiger, F. Rothbrust, V.M. Rheinberger, W. Höland, Introduction to a tough, strong and stable Ce-TZP/MgAl2O4 composite for biomedical applications. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 32(11), 2697–2703 (2012)
K. Morita, K. Hiraga, B.N. Kim, H. Yoshida, Y. Sakka, Synthesis of dense nanocrystalline ZrO2-MgAl2O4 spinel composite. Scr. Mater. 53(9), 1007–1012 (2005)
E.M.M. Ewais, D.H.A. Besisa, A.A.M. El-Amir, S.M. El-Sheikh, D.E. Rayan, Optical properties of nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel synthesized from industrial wastes. J. Alloys Compd. 649, 159–166 (2015)
A.A.M. El-Amir, E.M.M. Ewais, A.R. Abdel-Aziem, A. Ahmed, B.E.H. El-Anadouli, Nano-alumina powders/ceramics derived from aluminum foil waste at low temperature for various industrial applications. J. Environ. Manage. 183, 121–125 (2016)
J. Xu, Y. Zhang, Y. Qu, F. Qi, X. Zhang, J. Yang, Direct coagulation casting of alumina suspension from calcium citrate assisted by pH shift. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(4), 1048–1053 (2014)
A. Marcilla, A. Gomez-Siurana, M.J. Muñoz, F.J. Valdés, Comments on the methods of characterization of textural properties of solids from gas adsorption data. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol. 27(1), 69–84 (2009)
A. Maji, G. Choubey, Microstructure and mechanical properties of alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ). Mater. Today Proc. 5(2), 7457–7465 (2018)
V. Lughi, V. Sergo, Low temperature degradation-aging-of zirconia: a critical review of the relevant aspects in dentistry. Dent. Mater. 26(8), 807–820 (2010)
L. Wang, X. Yang, X. Liu, Z. Jiao, Z. Huang, Effects of particle size on densification behavior of Si3N4 ceramics. Key Eng. Mater. 697, 182–187 (2016)
A.A.M. El-Amir, M. Abdelgawad, S. Li, E.M.M. Ewais, S.M.A. El-Gamal, Effect of waste-derived MA spinel on sintering and stabilization behavior of partially-stabilized double phase zirconia. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 18(1), 203–212 (2020)
M. Abdelgawad, S.M.A. El-Gamal, E.M.M. Ewais, S. Li, Effect of magnesia rich spinel on densification and stabilization behavior of monoclinic zirconia. J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 58, 276–286 (2021)
T. Zhu, Z. Xie, Y. Han, S. Li, Microstructure and mechanical properties of ZTA composites fabricated by oscillatory pressure sintering. Ceram. Int. 44(1), 505–510 (2018)
A. Talimian, V. Pouchly, K. Maca, D. Galusek, Densification of magnesium aluminate spinel using manganese and cobalt fluoride as sintering aids. Materials (Basel) 13(1), 102 (2020)
E. Serrano Pérez, H. Martinez Gutierrez, K.J. Martinez Gonzalez, E. Marín Moares, F. Juárez López, Densification and microstructure of spark plasma sintered 7YSZ–Gd2O3 ceramic nano-composites. J. Asian Ceram. Soc. 5(3), 266–275 (2017)
A. Talimian, V. Pouchly, H.F. El-Maghraby, K. Maca, D. Galusek, Transparent magnesium aluminate spinel: Effect of critical temperature in two-stage spark plasma sintering. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 40(6), 2417–2425 (2020)
K. Harada, A. Shinya, D. Yokoyama, A. Shinya, Effect of loading conditions on the fracture toughness of zirconia. J. Prosthodont. Res. 57(2), 82–87 (2013)
I. Ganesh, A review on magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel: synthesis, processing and applications. Int. Mater. Rev. 58(2), 63–112 (2013)
D. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Zhong, L. Liu, E. Adolfsson, Z. Shen, Dense and strong ZrO2 ceramics fully densified in <15 min. Adv. Appl. Ceram. 118(1–2), 23–29 (2019)
This work was supported by the financial of the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant numbers 51571160 and 51871180]; Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China [Grant number 2015JM5233].
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
El-Amir, A.A.M., Li, S., Abdelgawad, M. et al. MgAl2O4-reinforced c-ZrO2 ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering. J. Korean Ceram. Soc. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43207-021-00126-4
- Magnesium aluminate spinel
- Spark plasma sintering