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3D ordered nanoelectrodes for energy conversion applications: thermoelectric, piezoelectric, and electrocatalytic applications


To date, many methods have been suggested to improve the performance of materials in various applications by applying new physical and chemical properties at the nanometer scale in the form of nanodots, nanowires, and nanofilms. However, most of the proposed methods are difficult to apply to industrial settings due to their size limitations. In that sense, the realization of 3D nanostructured materials is significant for practical use of nanotechnology. The continuous 3D nanostructuring insures the maximum utilization of materials efficiency and improves the stability through well-ordered structures. In this respect, 3D nanostructures of materials can be useful for energy conversion applications such as thermoelectric, piezoelectric, and electrocatalytic applications. Herein, we briefly overview 3D nanofabrication methods to convert the materials in the 3D nanostructures, followed by a review on the advantages of 3D ordered nanoelectrodes for high-performance energy conversion applications.

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Scheme 1

Copyright 2019 Elsevier, Reprinted from [144] Copyright (2020) National Academy of Sciences, [42] Reproduced with permission of Wiley.)

Fig. 1

Copyright 2004, The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.)

Fig. 2

Copyright 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.) c Schematic illustration of material conversion of 3D nanostructured materials using electrodeposition. d Corresponding cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of using electrodeposition. (Reprinted from [40]. Copyright 2018 Elsevier.)

Fig. 3

Copyright 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry.)

Fig. 4

Copyright 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.)

Fig. 5

Copyright 2020 Elsevier.)

Fig. 6

Copyright The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018.)

Fig. 7

Copyright 2019 Elsevier.)

Fig. 8

Copyright 2020 American Chemical Society.)

Fig. 9

Copyright 2018 Elsevier.)

Fig. 10

Copyright 2020, The National Academy of Sciences of the USA)

Fig. 11

Copyright 2019, Wiley–VCH)


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This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2020R1I1A1A01071675), Nano-Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (2017M3A7B4049547), and Creative Materials Discovery Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2017M3D1A1039558, NRF-2020M3D1A1110522).

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Kim, K., Tiwari, A.P., Novak, T.G. et al. 3D ordered nanoelectrodes for energy conversion applications: thermoelectric, piezoelectric, and electrocatalytic applications. J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 58, 379–398 (2021).

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  • 3D nanopatterning
  • Electrodes
  • Thermal applications
  • Piezoelectric properties
  • Electrocatalysts