Acute toxicity and morphology alterations of glyphosate-based herbicides to Daphnia magna and Cyclops vicinus


Zooplankton is very sensitive to various agrochemicals including glyphosate herbicides which may arise from runoff in paddy fields. In this study, acute toxicity test of Glyphosate-Based Herbicides (GBHs) was conducted to Daphnia magna and Cyclops vicinus. Acute toxicity test was performed to both organisms at the Glyphosate concentrations of 20, 80, 160, 320, and 640 mg/L in exposure time of 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h. The mortality and morphology were observed to determine the LC50 and the effect of its morphology. The test showed that D. magna was more susceptible than C. vicinus. The LC50 of GBHs to D. magna and C. vicinus for its different exposure time were respectively show as follows: 76.67 mg/L and 207.89 mg/L (12 h); 36.2 mg/L and 159.8 mg/L (24 h); and 21.34 mg/L and 92.93 mg/L (48 h). There were no significant differences of the alteration of spin length, body length, and head length of D. magna to exposure of GBHs, except the head width. While body length alteration of C. vicinus was significantly different towards the increase in concentration.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. 1.

    Schreinemachers P, Tipraqsa P (2012) Agricultural pesticides and land use intensification in high, middle and low income countries. Food Policy 37:616–626.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Aktar W, Sengupta D, Chowdhury A (2009) Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdiscip Toxicol 2:1–12.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Pandya IY (2018) Pesticides and their applications in agriculture. Asian J Appl Sci Technol 2:894–900

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Halappa R, David M (2009) Behavioural responses of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) following sublethal exposure to chlorpyrifos. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 9:233–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Santiasih I, Sulistiyaning H, Hermana J (2020) The effects of particulate matters inhalation exposures of prallethrin and d-phenothrin mixture in mice (Mus musculus) against exhaled carbon dioxide concentration. Toxicol Res 36:59–67.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Santiasih I, Titah HS, Hermana J (2019) Carboxylesterase concentration in mouse exposed to particulate matters on inhalation exposure of prallethrin and d-phenothrin mixture. E3S Web Conf 125:04006.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Chen J, Jiang C, Huang H, Wei S, Huang Z, Wang H, Zhao D, Zhang C (2017) Characterization of Eleusine indica with gene mutation or amplification in EPSPS to glyphosate. Pestic Biochem Physiol 143:201–206.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Widowati T, Cinta R, Ginting B, Widyastuti U, Ardiwinata N (2017) Herbisida Glifosat Dan Paraquat Dari Rizosfer. Biopropal Industri 8:63–70

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Arango L, Buddrus-Schiemann K, Opelt K, Lueders T, Haesler F, Schmid M, Ernst D, Hartmann A (2014) Effects of glyphosate on the bacterial community associated with roots of transgenic Roundup Ready® soybean. Eur J Soil Biol 63:41–48.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Gomes MP, Le Manach SG, Moingt M, Smedbol E, Paquet S, Labrecque M, Lucotte M, Juneau P (2016) Impact of phosphate on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in willow. Elsevier, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Yadav AK, Srivastava P, Kumar N, Abbassi R, Mishra BK (2018) Constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell: an emerging integrated technology for potential industrial wastewater treatment and bio-electricity generation. Constr Wetl Ind Wastewater Treat.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chłopecka M, Mendel M, Dziekan N, Karlik W (2014) Glyphosate affects the spontaneous motoric activity of intestine at very low doses. In vitro study. Pestic Biochem Physiol 113:25–30.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Annett R, Habibi HR, Hontela A (2014) Impact of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on the freshwater environment. J Appl Toxicol 34:458–479.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Klátyik S, Takács E, Mörtl M, Földi A, Trábert Z, Ács É, Darvas B, Székács A (2017) Dissipation of the herbicide active ingredient glyphosate in natural water samples in the presence of biofilms. Int J Environ Anal Chem 97:901–921.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kish A, Duan K, Leanna K (2017) The impact of RounduP® on Daphnia magna (2017 AAAS Annual Meeting). Accessed 31 Jan 2020

  16. 16.

    Marus EM, Elphick JR, Bailey HC (2015) A new toxicity test using the freshwater copepod Cyclops vernalis. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 95:357–362.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Aghoghovwia OA, Izah SC (2018) Toxicity of glyphosate based herbicides to fingerlings of Heterobranchus bidorsalis. Int J Avian Wildl Biol 3:397–400.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Biesinger KE, Williams LR, Schalie van der S (1987) Procedures for conducting daphnia magna toxicity bioassays. EPA/600/8-87/011. Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory. Cincinnati, OH

  19. 19.

    Connon RE, Geist J, Werner I (2012) Effect-based tools for monitoring and predicting the ecotoxicological effects of chemicals in the aquatic environment. Sensors (Basel) 12:12741–12771.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Sarigül Z, Bekcan S (2009) Acute toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate on Daphnia magna. Turk J Agric For 15:204–208

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Alberdi JL, Sàenz ME, Di Marzio WD, Tortorelli MC (1996) Comparative acute toxicity of two herbicides, paraquat and glyphosate, to Daphnia magna and D. spinulata. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 57:229–235.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Folmar LC, Sanders HO, Julin AM (1979) Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 8:269–278.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Edwin T, Ihsan T, Pratiwi W (2017) Acute toxicity test of metal lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) on Daphnia magna. Jurnal Teknik Lingkungan UNAND 14:33–40

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Mcfalls J, Yi Y, Li M, Senseman S, Storey B (2015) Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides: Technical Report. Texas

  25. 25.

    Van Vuren JHJ (1986) The effects of toxicants on the haematology of Labeo umbratus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Comp Biochem Physiol C Comp Pharmacol Toxicol 83:155–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Ebert D (2005) Ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of parasitism in Daphnia [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information. Available from:

  27. 27.

    Schweizer M, Brilisauer K, Triebskorn R, Forchhammer K, Köhler H-R (2019) How glyphosate and its associated acidity affect early development in zebrafish (Danio rerio). PeerJ 7:e7094.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Micah AD, Yusuf A, Umar R, Mohammed NA (2016) Acute effect of glyphosate on water quality parameters and some antioxidant response of heteroclarias fingerlings. FUW Trends Sci Technol J 1:111–114

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Lautenschlager RA, Schaertl GR (1991) Electrical conductivity of five concentrations of two glyphosate-containing herbicides. South J Appl For 15:85–88.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Rusydi AF (2018) Correlation between conductivity and total dissolved solid in various type of water: a review.  IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 118:012019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Auta J, Ogueji EO (2008) Acute toxicity and behavioural effects of chlorpyrifosethyl pesticide to juveniles of Clarias gariepinus Teugels. In: 22nd Annual conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON), 12–16 Nov 2007, Kebbi, Nigeria, pp 264–272.

  32. 32.

    Bengtsson G, Hansson LA, Montenegro K (2004) Reduced grazing rates in Daphnia pulex caused by contaminants: implications for trophic cascades. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:2641–2648.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Becaro AA, Jonsson CM, Puti FC, Siqueira MC, Mattoso LHC, Correa DS, Ferreira MD (2015) Toxicity of PVA-stabilized silver nanoparticles to algae and microcrustaceans. Environ Nanotechnol Monit Manag 3:22–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Ministry of Research and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia with Master leading to Ph.D. scholarship (PMDSU), the agreement letter number 821/PKS/ITS/2019. Furthermore, the authors are also grateful for the PROM Programme 2019–International Scholarship Exchange of Ph.D. Candidates that was co-financed by the University of Szczecin and the European Social Fund under the Knowledge Education Development Operational Programme.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joni Hermana.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gustinasari, K., Sługocki, Ł., Czerniawski, R. et al. Acute toxicity and morphology alterations of glyphosate-based herbicides to Daphnia magna and Cyclops vicinus. Toxicol Res. (2020).

Download citation


  • Glyphosate
  • Acute toxicity
  • Morphology alteration
  • Daphnia magna
  • Cyclops vicinus
  • Toxicology