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Evidence of Validity for the Brazilian Version of the Young Schema Questionnaire—Short Form (YSQ-S3)


Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are dysfunctional structures formed by emotions, cognitions, memories, and physical sensations. The Young schema questionnaire—short form (YSQ-S3), a 90-item self-report instrument with a 6-point Likert scale, was developed to measure the 18 EMS. This study aimed to present evidence of the validity of the YSQ-S3 instrument for use in Brazil, involving a general population sample of 1,050 individuals. The YSQ-S3 and symptom checklist (SCL-90) forms were applied. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure and validity evidence based on relations to other variables through correlating with clinical psychological symptoms. The results indicated good evidence of validity. Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory for all EMS (α between 0.74 and 0.94). The fit of the factor model were shown to be adequate and the instrument had good validity. It was possible to verify satisfactory evidence of validity for use of the instrument in the Brazilian population. The importance of future studies involving clinical samples is emphasized.

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Data Availability

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


α :

Cronbach’s alpha

λ :

Standardized factorial loads

χ2 :

Chi-squared test






Confirmatory factor analysis


Comparative fit index


Composite reliability


Degrees of freedom






Diagonally weighted least squares


Emotional deprivation


Emotional inhibition




Early maladaptive schemas




Failure to achieve


Insufficient self-control


International Society of Schema Therapy






Root mean square error of approximation




Symptom checklist


Standard deviation


Social isolation




Standardized root mean square residual index




Schema therapy


Tucker-Lewis index


Unrelenting standards


Vulnerability to harm


Young schema questionnaire


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We are grateful for the participation of other colleagues from the Grupo Avaliação Atendimento e Pesquisa em Psicoterapias Cognitivas e Comportamentais (GAAPCC).


We are grateful for the financial support of CNPq and FAPERGS.

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Correspondence to Lauren Heineck de Souza.

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Heineck de Souza, L., Eduarda Anawate Muniz Tavares, M., de Lara Machado, W. et al. Evidence of Validity for the Brazilian Version of the Young Schema Questionnaire—Short Form (YSQ-S3). Trends in Psychol. 30, 225–241 (2022).

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  • Young schema questionnaire
  • Schema therapy
  • Early maladaptive schemas
  • Factorial structure
  • Validity
  • Reliability