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Evidence of Validity for the Brazilian Version of the Young Schema Questionnaire—Short Form (YSQ-S3)

Abstract

Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are dysfunctional structures formed by emotions, cognitions, memories, and physical sensations. The Young schema questionnaire—short form (YSQ-S3), a 90-item self-report instrument with a 6-point Likert scale, was developed to measure the 18 EMS. This study aimed to present evidence of the validity of the YSQ-S3 instrument for use in Brazil, involving a general population sample of 1,050 individuals. The YSQ-S3 and symptom checklist (SCL-90) forms were applied. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure and validity evidence based on relations to other variables through correlating with clinical psychological symptoms. The results indicated good evidence of validity. Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory for all EMS (α between 0.74 and 0.94). The fit of the factor model were shown to be adequate and the instrument had good validity. It was possible to verify satisfactory evidence of validity for use of the instrument in the Brazilian population. The importance of future studies involving clinical samples is emphasized.

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Data Availability

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

α :

Cronbach’s alpha

λ :

Standardized factorial loads

χ2 :

Chi-squared test

AB:

Abandonment

AS:

Approval-seeking

CFA:

Confirmatory factor analysis

CFI:

Comparative fit index

CR:

Composite reliability

df:

Degrees of freedom

DP:

Dependence

DS:

Defectiveness/shame

DWLS:

Diagonally weighted least squares

ED:

Emotional deprivation

EI:

Emotional inhibition

EM:

Enmeshment

EMS:

Early maladaptive schemas

EN:

Entitlement

FA:

Failure to achieve

IS:

Insufficient self-control

ISST:

International Society of Schema Therapy

MA:

Mistrust/abused

NE:

Negativity

RMSEA:

Root mean square error of approximation

SB:

Subjugation

SCL-90:

Symptom checklist

SD:

Standard deviation

SI:

Social isolation

SP:

Punitiveness

SRMR:

Standardized root mean square residual index

SS:

Self-sacrifice

ST:

Schema therapy

TLI:

Tucker-Lewis index

US:

Unrelenting standards

VH:

Vulnerability to harm

YSQ:

Young schema questionnaire

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful for the participation of other colleagues from the Grupo Avaliação Atendimento e Pesquisa em Psicoterapias Cognitivas e Comportamentais (GAAPCC).

Funding

We are grateful for the financial support of CNPq and FAPERGS.

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Correspondence to Lauren Heineck de Souza.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Heineck de Souza, L., Eduarda Anawate Muniz Tavares, M., de Lara Machado, W. et al. Evidence of Validity for the Brazilian Version of the Young Schema Questionnaire—Short Form (YSQ-S3). Trends in Psychol. 30, 225–241 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43076-021-00104-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43076-021-00104-z

Keywords

  • Young schema questionnaire
  • Schema therapy
  • Early maladaptive schemas
  • Factorial structure
  • Validity
  • Reliability