The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS): a Children-Rated Subset

El sistema de imágenes afectivas de Nencki: un subconjunto para niños

O sistema de imagens afetivas da Nencki: um subconjunto de crianças

Abstract

Emotion research in children should make use of emotional stimuli ideally coming from children-rated databases. However, most of the works in this area use adult-rated stimuli databases or a collection of stimuli taken from the Internet or from unidentified sources without any standardization procedure or content control for children population. These issues result in an overall lack of control over the kind of emotion to be elicited, leading to limited results. Therefore, in this work, a children-rated picture subset taken from the adult-rated Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) set is proposed as a stimuli database for emotion research in children. The NAPS is a standardized set of 1356 realistic, high-quality photographs classified into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes), and up to now, normative ratings were only collected in an adult population. The proposed subset in this work contains 1128 pictures taken from the original database which are developmentally appropriate for children based on different criteria and an expert’s judgment procedure. Affective ratings were collected from a sample of 266 children 8–12 years old. With this work, both the availability and quality of affective stimuli for the study of emotion in children are directly improved.

Resumen

La investigación en emociones en población infantil debería hacer uso de estímulos emocionales, idealmente provenientes de bases de datos calificadas por niños. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los trabajos en este campo utilizan bases de datos de estímulos puntuadas o validadas por adultos o estímulos tomados de Internet o de fuentes no identificadas sin ningún procedimiento de estandarización o control de contenido para población infantil. Estos problemas dan como resultado una falta general de control sobre el tipo de emoción que se debe provocar, lo que lleva a resultados limitados. Por lo tanto, en este trabajo, se propone un subconjunto de imágenes para niños del conjunto Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) desarrollado para población adulta. El NAPS es un conjunto estandarizado de 1356 fotografías realistas y de alta calidad clasificadas en cinco categorías (personas, caras, animales, objetos y paisajes) que hasta el momento solo cuenta con datos para población adulta. y adulta. El subconjunto propuesto en este trabajo contiene 1128 imágenes tomadas de la base de datos original, apropiadas y aptas para población infantil, según los diferentes criterios y el procedimiento de juicio de un experto. Las evaluaciones afectivas se obtuvieron de una muestra de 266 niños de 8 a 12 años de edad. Con este trabajo, tanto la disponibilidad como la calidad de los estímulos afectivos para el estudio de la emoción en población infantil se ve incrementada.

Resumo

Pesquisas sobre emoções em crianças devem fazer uso de estímulos emocionais, idealmente a partir de bancos de dados avaliados por crianças. Entretanto, a maioria dos trabalhos nesse campo utiliza bancos de dados de estímulos pontuados ou validados por adultos ou estímulos retirados da Internet ou de fontes não identificadas, sem qualquer procedimento de padronização ou controle de conteúdo para crianças. Estes problemas resultam em uma falta geral de controle sobre o tipo de emoção a ser provocada, levando a resultados limitados. Portanto, neste trabalho, é proposto um subconjunto de imagens para crianças do Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) desenvolvido para a população adulta. O NAPS é um conjunto padronizado de 1.356 fotografias realistas de alta qualidade, classificadas em cinco categorias (pessoas, rostos, animais, objetos e paisagens) que até agora só têm dados para a população adulta e adulta. O subconjunto proposto neste trabalho contém 1128 imagens retiradas da base de dados original, adequadas e apropriadas para crianças, de acordo com diferentes critérios e um processo de julgamento de peritos. As avaliações afetivas foram obtidas a partir de uma amostra de 266 crianças de 8 a 12 anos de idade. Com este trabalho, tanto a disponibilidade quanto a qualidade dos estímulos afetivos para o estudo da emoção em crianças são aumentadas.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The following NAPS photographs were excluded: Animals (1, 8, 10, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 24, 25, 27, 29, 32, 33, 38, 39, 45, 47, 48, 49, 54, 56, 57, 60, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 450, 204, 207), faces (3, 7, 9, 10, 13, 16, 18, 19, 25, 27, 28 29,31, 32, 33, 34, 38, 52, 104, 141, 143, 145, 147, 149, 151, 153, 159, 160, 170, 174, 264, 265, 266, 268,269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 280, 284, 291, 293, 298, 300, 330, 345, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 371), landscapes (1, 2),objects (1, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 55, 87, 98, 103, 105, 115, 118, 119, 121, 126, 127, 131, 132, 137, 139, 143, 145, 147, 148, 149, 154, 328, 285), and people (2, 3, 7, 10, 13, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 31, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 53, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 88, 124, 127, 128, 129, 140, 147, 155, 181, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245, 246, 247).

  2. 2.

    For example, Hajcak and Dennis (2009) used 9 response points; Cordon and cols. (2013) used 5 response points.

  3. 3.

    The standards available for adults were used, and they were not administered in this work. The adult-rated NAPS using the SAM scale is comprised of 510 pictures of which 395 coincide with the 1128 pictures of the proposed NAPS subset for children.

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Correspondence to Eliana Vanesa Zamora.

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Zamora, E.V., Richard’s, M.M., Introzzi, I. et al. The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS): a Children-Rated Subset. Trends in Psychol. 28, 477–493 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43076-020-00029-z

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Keywords

  • Affective visual stimuli
  • Affective rating
  • Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS)
  • Children
  • Picture database

Palabras clave

  • estímulos emocionales visuales
  • valoración afectiva
  • Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS)
  • niños
  • base de datos de imágenes

Palavras-chave

  • estímulos emocionais visuais
  • avaliação afetiva
  • Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS)
  • crianças
  • banco de dados de imagens