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Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) Stem Extract Restores Selected Biomolecules of Erectile Dysfunction in the Testicular and Penile Tissues of Paroxetine-Treated Wistar Rats

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Abstract

Inadequate release of nitric oxide (NO) by the penile tissue impacts negatively on penile erection causing erectile dysfunction (ED). Fadogia agrestis has been implicated in the management of ED without information on key biomolecules associated with ED in male rats. Therefore, this study evaluated the influence of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem (AEFAS) on key biomolecules associated with ED in the penile and testicular tissues of male Wistar rats induced with ED by paroxetine. Thirty male rats were assigned into 6 groups (I, II, III, IV, V and VI) of 5. Group I (sham control, without ED) was administered distilled water orally. Paroxetine-induced ED rats in groups II (negative control), III (positive control), IV, V and VI received distilled water, sildenafil citrate (SC, 50 mg/kg body weight) and AEFAS at 18, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively. Paroxetine lowered/reduced (p < 0.05) the MF, IF, EF, NO, cGMP, catalase, SOD, T-SH, GSH and GST whilst it prolonged/increased ML, IL, EL, PEI, AChE, PDE5, arginase, ACE, TBARS and H2O2. Contrastingly, AEFAS like sildenafil citrate increased (p < 0.05) the penile and testicular NO, cGMP, catalase, SOD, T-SH, GSH and GST and reduced AChE, PDE5, arginase, ACE, TBARS and H2O2 to levels that compared favourably (p > 0.05) with those of sham control. The study concluded that AEFAS restored the NO/cGMP pathway and ED-associated key enzymes in the penile and testicular tissues of male rats via antioxidant means. The study recommended the use of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem in managing ED after clinical trials.

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Abbreviations

ACE:

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACh:

Acetylcholine

AChE:

Acetylcholinesterase

ADE:

Adenosine deaminase

Ang I:

Angiotensin I

Ang II:

Angiotensin II

cGMP:

3′-5′-Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

ED:

Erectile dysfunction

H2O2 :

Hydrogen peroxide

NO:

Nitric oxide

NOS:

Nitric oxide synthase

O2 :

Superoxide anion

ONOO :

Peroxynitrite

PDE5:

Phosphodiesterase V

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

GST:

Glutathione S-transferase

GSH:

Reduced glutathione

TBARS:

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

T-SH:

Total thiol

OH·:

Hydroxyl radical

MF:

Mount frequency

IF:

Intromission frequency

EF:

Ejaculatory frequency

ML:

Mount latency

IL:

Intromission latency

EL:

Ejaculatory latency

PEI:

Post-ejaculatory interval

AEFAS:

Aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem

SOD:

Superoxide dismutase

CAT:

Catalase

GTP:

Guanosine triphosphate

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the technical aid provided by Mr. Dele Aiyepeku, University of Ilorin, Ilorin. Nigeria

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Authors

Contributions

Conception and design: OBO and MTY.

Literature search and acquisition of data: OBO.

Analysis, interpretation of data and drafting the manuscript: OBO.

Revising for intellectual content: MTY.

Final approval of the completed article: OBO and MTY.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Olalekan Bukunmi Ogunro.

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The study was approved by the Departmental Ethical Review Committee, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria (Protocol Approval Number: BCH/UIL/20/2018) and was performed in accordance with the guidelines on the care and the use of laboratory animals. The participants gave their consent to be part of the research study.

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The authors contributed to the study and consented to its submission after the final review.

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Ogunro, O.B., Yakubu, M.T. Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) Stem Extract Restores Selected Biomolecules of Erectile Dysfunction in the Testicular and Penile Tissues of Paroxetine-Treated Wistar Rats. Reprod. Sci. 30, 690–700 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43032-022-01050-6

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