This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49(11):1603–16.
Zazenski R, Ashton WH, Briggs D, Chudkowski M, Kelse JW, MacEachern L, et al. Talc: occurrence, characterization, and consumer applications. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1995;21(2):218–29.
Quinlan TR, BeruBe KA, Hacker MP, Taatjes DJ, Timblin CR, Goldberg J, et al. Mechanisms of asbestos-induced nitric oxide production by rat alveolar macrophages in inhalation and in vitro models. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998;24(5):778–88.
Hillegass JM, Shukla A, Lathrop SA, MacPherson MB, Fukagawa NK, Mossman BT. Assessing nanotoxicity in cells in vitro. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2010;2(3):219–31.
Endo-Capron S, Renier A, Janson X, Kheuang L, Jaurand MC. In vitro response of rat pleural mesothelial cells to talc samples in genotoxicity assays (sister chromatid exchanges and DNA repair). Toxicol in Vitro. 1993;7(1):7–14.
Endo-Capron S, Fleury-Feith J, Nebut M, De Neef R, Jaurand M. Some in vivo and in vitro studies carried out with talc samples. In: Health Related Effects of Phyllosilicates. Springer; 1990. p. 369–75.
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Health Assessment Document for Talc. Washington: Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Office of Research and Development; 1992.
Mossman BT, Lippmann M, Hesterberg TW, Kelsey KT, Barchowsky A, Bonner JC. Pulmonary endpoints (lung carcinomas and asbestosis) following inhalation exposure to asbestos. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2011;14(1–4):76–121.
Anderson EL, Sheehan PJ, Kalmes RM, Griffin JR. Assessment of health risk from historical use of cosmetic talcum powder. Risk Anal. 2017;37(5):918–29.
Barlow CA, Marsh GM, Benson S, Finley BL. The mineralogy and epidemiology of cosmetic talc. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018;361:173.
Boffetta P, Mundt KA, Thompson WJ. The epidemiologic evidence for elongate mineral particle (EMP)-related human cancer risk. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018;361:100–6.
Garabrant DH, Pastula ST. A comparison of asbestos fiber potency and elongate mineral particle (EMP) potency for mesothelioma in humans. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018;361:127–36.
Pira E, Coggiola M, Ciocan C, Romano C, La Vecchia C, Pelucchi C, et al. Mortality of talc miners and millers from Val Chisone, Northern Italy: an updated cohort study. J Occup Environ Med. 2017;59(7):659–64.
Price B. Industrial-grade talc exposure and the risk of mesothelioma. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2010;40(6):513–30.
Wergeland E, Gjertsen F, Vos L, Grimsrud TK. Cause-specific mortality and cancer morbidity in 390 male workers exposed to high purity talc, a six-decade follow-up. Am J Ind Med. 2017;60(9):821–30.
Smith WE, Hubert DD, Sobel HJ, Marquet E. Biologic tests of tremolite in hamsters. Dusts and Disease: Proceedings of the Conference on Occupational Exposures to Fibrous and Particulate Dusts and Their Extension into the Environment Park Forest South, IL: Pathotox Publishers Inc.; 1979.
Stanton MF, Layard M, Tegeris A, Miller E, May M, Morgan E, et al. Relation of particle dimension to carcinogenicity in amphibole asbestoses and other fibrous minerals. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1981;67(5):965–75.
Stenback F, Rowlands J. Role of talc and benzo(a)pyrene in respiratory tumor formation. An experimental study. Scand J Respir Dis. 1978;59(3):130–40.
Wagner JC, Berry G, Cooke TJ, Hill RJ, Pooley FD, Skidmore JW. Animal experiments with talc. Inhaled Part. 1975;4(Pt 2):647–54.
Wagner JC, Hill RJ, Berry G, Wagner MM. Treatments affecting the rate of asbestos-induced mesotheliomas. Br J Cancer. 1980;41(6):918–22.
Wehner AP, Zwicker GM, Cannon WC. Inhalation of talc baby powder by hamsters. Food Cosmet Toxicol. 1977;15(2):121–9.
Wehner AP. Cosmetic talc should not be listed as a carcinogen: comments on NTP's deliberations to list talc as a carcinogen. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002;36(1):40–50.
World Health Organization (WHO) IARC Monograph. Carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc. Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 2010.
Boorman GA, Seely JC. The lack of an ovarian effect of lifetime talc exposure in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1995;21(2):242–3.
Conflicts of Interest
Dr. Mossman has performed research that has been funded by the National Institutes of Health and other foundations on mineral dusts and disease for over 40 years. These include studies on talcs (1982–2010) that have been used as negative controls in her experiments. Since 2015, Dr. Mossman has testified for defendants in talc litigation, including Johnson and Johnson, Inc. Dr. Mossman has received no remuneration for her time and scientific opinions expressed here.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Mossman, B.T. Letter to the Editor: Fletcher NM, Harper AK, Memaj I, Fan R, Morris RT, Saed GM. Molecular Basis Supporting the Association of Talcum Powder Use with Increased Risk of Ovarian Cancer. Reprod Sci. 2019;26(12):1603–12. DOI: 10.1177/1933719119831773. Reprod. Sci. 27, 1834–1835 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00265-9