Systematics and taxonomy of Platyrrhinus chocoensis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) based on morphometric and genetic analyses: implications for biogeography and conservation

Abstract

The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus is one of the most speciose genera in the family Phyllostomidae. It includes 20 species of frugivorous bats that are endemic to the Neotropics. Platyrrhinus chocoensis is a species distributed from southern Panama southward into northern Ecuador on the lowlands and mid elevations of the Pacific coast of northern South America, across the Chocó Biogeographic region, a hot-spot of biodiversity, extending west of the Andes. Due to its association with the Chocoan rainforest, P. chocoensis was designated as one of the two species of bats included in the Red List of Colombian mammals. Another species of Platyrrhinus, P. dorsalis, also occurs in Colombia and Ecuador along both slopes of the Andes. In contrast with P. chocoensis, P. dorsalis is considered a relatively common bat species within the Least Concern category of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. We evaluate the systematics and taxonomy of both species, P. chocoensis and P. dorsalis, using a combination of morphometric and molecular analyses. Although our morphometric analyses support a consistent morphological differentiation between these two taxa, the analyses of mtDNA sequences of Cyt-b and ND2 revealed that P. chocoensis and P. dorsalis have no differentiation at the genetic level for the analyzed markers (0.7%); therefore, we recognize P. chocoensis as a junior synonym of P. dorsalis. In addition, our results support the recognition of two subspecies within P. dorsalis: the nominate P. d. dorsalis and P. d. chocoensis. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic implications of our findings, in particular the consequences of the synonymization of P. chocoensis, that also warrants the reevaluation of the taxonomic and conservation status of P. dorsalis populations from the Chocoan domain.

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Acknowledgements

The senior author thanks the Universidad de la Amazonía, Universidad Tecnológica del Chocó, CEIBHA, and the Grupo de Investigación en Manejo y Gestión de Vida Silvestre del Chocó (FASCHO), for his training. We thank the Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas Laboratorio de Genética, Grupo de Investigación GEPAMOL of the Universidad del Quindío, Leonardo Padilla, Jorge Enrique Gómez Marín, and Diego Moncada for their help and support in gathering the molecular data. Orfelina Ríos-Medina (CMCH) and Oscar Murillo (UV) allowed LPM access to the collections under their care. Pablo Palacios and Luis A. Moreno-Amud comments and advise us on the morphometric analysis. Alexander Velásquez Valencia, Carola Cañón, Leonardo Palacios Duque, Mónica Celis, and Armando Sterling commented earlier versions of this manuscript. We finally would like to thank the communities of Salero and Pacurita for their hospitality, care and conservation of the surrounding forest and especially to Luis Manuel Beltrán, for his assistance in the field and sharing with LPM his traditional knowledge.

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Specimens examined

The following list includes all the specimens examined in this study with their respective localities. Refer “Materials and methods” for abbreviations.

Platyrrhinus chocoensis (147). COLOMBIA: Cauca: Alto Micay, Betania (FMNH 113745, 113821, 113824, 113828, 113829, 113831, 113833–113835). Nariño: La Guayacana (USNM 309018). Valle del Cauca: Concesión Bajo Calima, Cuartel BV83 (FMNH 140696, 140697); Río Raposo (USNM 339395, 339396); Río Zabaletas, 29 km SE Buenaventura (USNM 483533, 483535, 483537–483539); Río Zabaletas, approx. 30 km SE Buenaventura (USNM 483536). Chocó: Alto Baudó, Río Pato, Km 15, via Panamericana (UV 3823), El Afirmado (CMCH 151); Bahía Solano, Ensenada de Utría (UV 3645, 3646, 3647, 3648); Bajo Baudó-Pizarro Quebrada Señor Señorcito, Corregimiento Piliza (UV 11310), 2 km Nororiente (UV 11289); Casa máquinero confluencia, Río Angostura (UV 11332); Condoto, Opogodó (CMCH 703); Istmina, Quebrada el Platinero 12 km-Istmina (UV 3817–3822, 10100–10103); Primera Mojarra (CMCH 661); Medio Atrato, La Vuelta (CMCH 1817, 3019); Nuquí (CMCH 1846); Quibdó, Pacurita (CMCH 3017, 3018, 872, 970, 1092, 1245, 1247, 1256, 1263, 1330, 1912); Guarandó (CMCH 341); San José del Palmar, Quebrada la Guagua, 8 km al Oeste La Italia, Sub, Q. Toro Viejo (UV 7446, 7447, 7449); Unión Panamericana, Salero (CMCH 141, 171, 233, 639, 669, 674, 1392). Risaralda: Pueblorico, Casa Elias Parra Confluencia de las Q. Amurrupa y Amurrupacito, Área de Manejo Especial Étnico de Alto Amurrupa, Corr. Santa Cecilia (UV 14711, 14681, 14679). Valle del Cauca: Buenaventura (UV 13594, 14363, 14719), Instalación Base Naval, Bahía Málaga (UV 5434–5436, 5976, 5978–5982); Fuente de Materiales, Bahía Málaga (UV 5571, 5573, 5574, 5575); Granja Agr. R. Calima, 13 km N, 14 km E Buenaventura (UV 2810–2812, 3183–3185); Campamento Pulpapel, Concesión Bajo Calima (UV 5748, 5749, 10666); Cuartel BV-83- Concesión Bajo Calima (UV 5736, 5738, 5744, 5745, 5751, 5754, 5755, 10663, 10664, 10956, 10957); Cuartel BV-5- Concesión Bajo Calima (UV 10954, 10955, 10665); Embalse Represa Alto Anchícaya (UV 14823); Estación # 5 “El Mirador” Río Cajambre (UV 3707–3709); Estero el Bonguito, Bongo puerto España (UV 13607); Finca San Pedro, Corr, Bazan Bocana (UV 13622); Río Zabaletas, 16 km S, 12 km E Buenaventura (UV 2162–2164, 2166, 2167, 10539, 10540); Quebrada San Joaquín, 8 km S., 3 km E, Bajo Calima (UV 2153); Quebrada Alegria, Bahía Málaga (UV 5359, 5360, 5566–5570, 5572); Río Zabaletas (UV 4257–4259); Río Zabaletas, 16 km S, 12 km E Buenaventura (UV 281, 972, 2287, 2288, 2290, 2291, 2294); Río Escalerete, Planta Acueducto (UV 3186); Tunel Murrapal, Represa Alto Anchicaya (UV 14358); Dagua, Qda. Pericos, via Cali-Buenaventura (UV 13749), Qda. El Oso, Vereda Saragosa, San Martin, via Cali-Buenaventura (UV 13596); Vereda el Placer; Corregimientola Cascada (UV 14838); Corregimiento Triana; via Cali-Buenaventura (UV 13795). PANAMÁ:Darién: Parque Nacional Darién, Rancho Frío (FMNH 128141).

Platyrrhinus dorsalis (15). COLOMBIA:Cauca: Charguayaco (FMNH 113538, 113539). Huila: Las Cuevas Parque, Upper Cabaña (FMNH 58740). Valle del Cauca: Dapa, 12 mi NW Cali (USNM 483573); Pichinde, 10 km SW Cali (USNM 483577); Pance, approx 20 km SW (USNM 483580–483585, 483593, 483598). ECUADOR: Imbabura: Paramba (BMNH 99.12.5.1 [Holotype of Vampyrops dorsalis]). VENEZUELA: Vargas: Galipán, Cerro Ávila, 5.7 km NE Caracas (BMNH 14.7.27.1 [Holotype of Vampyrops oratus]).

Appendix 2

Species, tissue collection number, and GenBank accession numbers for the Platyrrhinus and outgroup samples used in the study.

 Tissue/museum numberGenBank accession numbers
Cty-bND2
Carollia brevicaudaFMNH174595FJ154120FJ154186
Chiroderma villosumFMNH174652FJ154121.FJ154187
Mesophylla macconelliFMNH174719FJ154122FJ154188
Sturnira erythromosFMNH174809FJ154179FJ154245
Uroderma magnirostrumFMNH174907FJ154180FJ154246
Vampyriscus bidensALG14898FJ154181FJ154247
Vampyrodes caraccioliFMNH174912FJ154182FJ154248
Vampyressa melissaFMNH174910FJ154185FJ154251
Platyrrhinus albericoiFMNH172107FJ154123FJ154189
Platyrrhinus angustirostrisFMNH129154FJ154143FJ154209
Platyrrhinus angustirostrisROM105964GQ184783GQ184756
Platyrrhinus aurariusROM108220FJ154125FJ154191
Platyrrhinus aurariusROM114634FJ154126FJ154192
Platyrrhinus aurariusROM114660FJ154127FJ154193
Platyrrhinus aurariusROM114679FJ154128FJ154194
Platyrrhinus aurariusROM114702FJ154129FJ154195
Platyrrhinus brachycephalusFMNH174746FJ154131FJ154197
Platyrrhinus brachycephalusFMNH174748FJ154132FJ154198
Platyrrhinus chocoensisCMCH 872MT010326MT017920
Platyrrhinus chocoensisCMCH 1392MT010327MT017921
Platyrrhinus dorsalisTK135521FJ154133FJ154199
Platyrrhinus dorsalisTK135522FJ154134FJ154200
Platyrrhinus dorsalisTK135530FJ154135FJ154201
Platyrrhinus dorsalisTK135531FJ154136FJ154202
Platyrrhinus dorsalisTK135629FJ154137FJ154203
Platyrrhinus dorsalisTK135668FJ154138FJ154204
Platyrrhinus dorsalisTK135940FJ154139FJ154205
Platyrrhinus fusciventrisAMNH267555GQ184739GQ184757
Platyrrhinus fusciventrisROM112611GQ184740GQ184758
Platyrrhinus guianensisROM113991KJ576930KJ576939
Platyrrhinus guianensisROM114070KJ576931KJ576940
Platyrrhinus helleriLSUM536FJ154140FJ154206
Platyrrhinus helleriROM99614KJ576925KJ576934
Platyrrhinus incarumFMNH129156FJ154144FJ154210
Platyrrhinus incarumUSNM584494GQ184735GQ184753
Platyrrhinus infuscusFMNH129160FJ154148FJ154214
Platyrrhinus infuscusFMNH129161FJ154149FJ154215
Platyrrhinus infuscusFMNH174767FJ154150FJ154216
Platyrrhinus infuscusFMNH174768FJ154151FJ154217
Platyrrhinus ismaeliFMNH129137FJ154152FJ154218
Platyrrhinus ismaeliFMNH129142FJ154153FJ154219
Platyrrhinus ismaeliFMNH129143FJ154154FJ154220
Platyrrhinus ismaeliFMNH129145FJ154155FJ154221
Platyrrhinus lineatusMVZ185596FJ154156FJ154222
Platyrrhinus lineatusMVZ185602FJ154159FJ154225
Platyrrhinus lineatusMVZ185603FJ154160FJ154226
Platyrrhinus masuFMNH172100FJ154161FJ154227
Platyrrhinus masuFMNH172101FJ154162FJ154228
Platyrrhinus masuFMNH172102FJ154163FJ154229
Platyrrhinus masuMUSM18265FJ154164FJ154230
Platyrrhinus matapalensisTK134723FJ154165FJ154231
Platyrrhinus matapalensisTK134726FJ154166FJ154232
Platyrrhinus umbratusFMNH172104FJ154169FJ154235
Platyrrhinus umbratusFMNH172106FJ154170FJ154236
Platyrrhinus umbratusMUSM18263FJ154171FJ154237
Platyrrhinus umbratusMUSM18264FJ154172FJ154238
Platyrrhinus umbratusMUSM18273FJ154173FJ154239
Platyrrhinus recifinusMVZ185604KJ576962KJ576935
Platyrrhinus recifinusMVZ185605FJ154174FJ154240
Platyrrhinus recifinusMVZ185610FJ154176FJ154242
Platyrrhinus vittatusROM97305FJ154178FJ154244

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Palacios-Mosquera, L., Cuadrado-Rios, S., Murillo Leon, M. et al. Systematics and taxonomy of Platyrrhinus chocoensis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) based on morphometric and genetic analyses: implications for biogeography and conservation. Mamm Biol 100, 113–124 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42991-020-00007-z

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Keywords

  • Allen’s rule
  • Bergmann’s rule
  • Chocó Biogeographic
  • Morphological evolution
  • Subspecies conservation