Skip to main content
Log in

Enhancing Academic Certificate Privacy with a Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain-Based Access Control Approach

  • Original Research
  • Published:
SN Computer Science Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Academic credentials hold great significance as they portray a person's educational qualifications, which have a substantial impact on their future achievements. Nevertheless, these certificates are often exposed to various security risks like unauthorized access, forgery, and tampering, as conventional access control mechanisms such as passwords or physical documents are inadequate to ensure their privacy and safety. This research presents a fresh approach to access control, employing the Hyperledger Fabric blockchain technology to secure academic certificates' privacy. The suggested access control protocol intends to guarantee that only authorized individuals have access to academic certificates, thus ensuring their privacy and safeguarding them from any unauthorized access. The methodology involved identifying stakeholders and determining their roles and required permissions. Students are granted full permissions, while other parties can only read and execute the certificates. The protocol is designed with ihe following two functions: locking and unlocking the certificate. When a student locks their certificate, it becomes unreadable to any other party, including the issuing university. The certificate can only be unlocked by the certificate owner, making it readable by authorized parties like potential employers or verification services. The study's results demonstrate that the proposed access control protocol is effective in protecting academic certificates' privacy while ensuring appropriate access control. The protocol allows students to lock and unlock their certificates, giving them complete control over their certificates' privacy. Only authorized parties can access the certificates, and their access is limited to reading and executing the certificates. The proposed protocol's performance was evaluated through performance evaluation, indicating that it has a high throughput rate and low latency. The protocol's effectiveness was tested through various use cases by varying the specifications of key parameters, and the results show that the protocol has high throughput and low latency at different transaction rates.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

The author confirms that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article.

References

  1. H. Gaikwad, N. D’Souza, R. Gupta, and A. K. Tripathy, “A Blockchain-Based Verification System for Academic Certificates,” in 2021 International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking, ICSCAN 2021, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSCAN53069.2021.9526377.

  2. O. S. Saleh, O. Ghazali, and N. B. Idris, “A New Privacy-Preserving Protocol for Academic Certificates on Hyperledger Fabric,” 2023. [Online]. Available: www.ijacsa.thesai.org.

  3. A. F. Camilleri, Alexander. Grech, and Andreia. Inamorato dos Santos, “Blockchain in education :,” 2017.

  4. Dharani J, Sundarakantham K, Singh K, Mercy Shalinie S. A Privacy-Preserving Framework for Endorsement Process in Hyperledger Fabric. Comput Secur. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2022.102637.

  5. Kosmarski A. Blockchain adoption in academia: promises and challenges. J Open Innovation. 2020;6(4):1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Daraghmi EY, Daraghmi YA, Yuan SM. UniChain: a design of blockchain-based system for electronic academic records access and permissions management. Appl Sci (Switzerland). 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/APP9224966.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Hameed B, Khan MM, Noman A, Ahmad MJ, Talib MR, Ashfaq F, Usman H, Yousaf M. A review of Blockchain based educational projects. Int J Adv Comput Sci Appl. 2019;10(10).

  8. Ravi D, Ramachandran S, Vignesh R, Falmari VR, Brindha M. Privacy preserving transparent supply chain management through hyperledger fabric. Blockchain. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcra.2022.100072.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. K. Kumutha and S. Jayalakshmi, “Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain Framework: Efficient Solution for Academic Certificate Decentralized Repository,” In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud), I-SMAC 2021, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021;1584–1590. https://doi.org/10.1109/I-SMAC52330.2021.9640785.

  10. W. Gräther, S. Kolvenbach, R. Ruland, J. Schütte, C. Ferreira Torres, and F. Wendland, “Blockchain for Education: Lifelong Learning Passport,” Proceedings of 1st ERCIM Blockchain Workshop 2018. European Society for Socially Embedded Technologies (EUSSET), 2018, https://doi.org/10.18420/blockchain2018_07.

  11. Capece G, Ghiron NL, Pasquale F. Blockchain technology: Redefining trust for digital certificates. Sustainability (Switzerland). 2020;12(21):1–12. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218952.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. T. Kanan, A. Turki, and M. Allahham, “SmartCert BlockChain Imperative for Educational Certificates,” in 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT), 2019.

  13. Turkanović M, Hölbl M, Košič K, Heričko M, Kamišalić A. EduCTX: A blockchain-based higher education credit platform. IEEE Access. 2018;6:5112–27. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2789929.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Nguyen BM, Dao TC, Do BL. Towards a blockchain-based certificate authentication system in Vietnam. PeerJ Comput Sci. 2020;3:2020. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj-cs.266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. IEEE Communications Society. and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, “Implementation and Analysis of Blockchain Based DApp for SecureSharing of Students’ Credentials,” in 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), 2020.

  16. Mishra RA, Kalla A, Braeken A, Liyanage M. Privacy protected blockchain based architecture and implementation for sharing of students’ credentials. Inf Process Manag. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2021.102512.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Liu B, Xiao L, Long J, Tang M, Hosam O. Secure digital certificate-based data access control scheme in blockchain. IEEE Access. 2020;8:91751–60. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2993921.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Aslam S, Tošić A, Mrissa M. Secure and privacy-aware blockchain design: requirements, challenges and solutions. J Cybersecur Privacy. 2021;1(1):164–94. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcp1010009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. H. Kang, T. Dai, N. Jean-Louis, S. Tao, and X. Gu, “FabZK: Supporting Privacy-Preserving, Auditable Smart Contracts in Hyperledger Fabric,” in Proceedings—49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, DSN 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Jun. 2019;543–555. https://doi.org/10.1109/DSN.2019.00061.

  20. A. Satybaldy and M. Nowostawski, “Review of techniques for privacy-preserving blockchain systems,” in BSCI 2020—Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Blockchain and Secure Critical Infrastructure, Co-located with AsiaCCS 2020, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, Oct. 2020;1–9. https://doi.org/10.1145/3384943.3409416.

  21. Dewangan NK, Chandrakar P, Kumari S, Rodrigues JJPC. Enhanced privacy-preserving in student certificate management in blockchain and interplanetary file system. Multimed Tools Appl. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-022-13915-8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Caldarelli G, Ellul J. “Trusted academic transcripts on the blockchain: a systematic literature review. Appl Sci (Switzerland). 2021;11(4):1–22. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041842.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Leka E, Selimi B. Development and evaluation of blockchain based secure application for verification and validation of academic certificates. Ann Emerg Technologies Comput. 2021;5(2):22–36. https://doi.org/10.33166/AETiC.2021.02.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Dash MK, Panda G, Kumar A, Luthra S. “Applications of blockchain in government education sector: a comprehensive review and future research potentials. J Global Oper Strategic Sourc. 2022;15(3):449–72. https://doi.org/10.1108/JGOSS-09-2021-0076.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. R. Otolo, E. Maingi, J. Sevilla, “Blockchain certificates: a prototype implementation for digitising educational certificates,” 2018.

  26. Hsu CS, Tu SF, Chiu PC. Design of an e-diploma system based on consortium blockchain and facial recognition. Educ Inf Technol (Dordr). 2022;27(4):5495–519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10840-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Emele IC, Oguoma SI, Uka KK, Nwaoha EC. An enhanced web base certificate verification system. OAlib. 2020;07(07):1–15. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Gamage HTM, Weerasinghe HD, Dias NGJ. “A survey on blockchain technology concepts, applications, and issues. SN Comput Sci. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42979-020-00123-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Aggarwal S, Kumar N. Blockchain components and concepts. In: Advances in Computers. Elsevier; 2021. vol 121, p. 387–398. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.adcom.2020.08.019.

  30. Alammary A, Alhazmi S, Almasri M, Gillani S. Blockchain-based applications in education: a systematic review. Appl Sci (Switzerland). 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122400.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Liu H, Han D, Li D. Fabric-iot: a blockchain-based access control system in IoT. IEEE Access. 2020;8:18207–18. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2968492.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Dong Q, Huang D, Sen A, Doupé A. Attribute-based encryption for fine-grained access control over sensitive data, master thesis, Arizona State University, 2019.

  33. Figueroa-Lorenzo S, Benito JA, Arrizabalaga S. Modbus access control system based on SSI over hyperledger fabric blockchain. Sensors. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Patel K, Das ML. Transcript management using blockchain enabled smart contracts. In: Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 16th International Conference, ICDCIT, Proceedings 16. Bhubaneswar: Springer International Publishing; 2020. p. 392–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36987-3_26.

  35. Koens T, Poll E. Assessing interoperability solutions for distributed ledgers. Pervasive Mob Comput. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmcj.2019.101079.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Capocasale V, Danilo G, Perboli G. Comparative analysis of permissioned blockchain frameworks for industrial applications. Blockchain. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcra.2022.100113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. E. E. Ramos and D. P. Yousefian Barfeh, “Advanced Encryption Standard-Cipher Blockchain Mode for File Cryptography Stint Control,” in 5th Conference on Signal Processing and Intelligent Systems, 18–19 December 2019, Shahrood University of Technology, IEEE, 2019;18–19.

  38. “Blockcerts : The Open Standard for Blockchain Credentials.” https://www.blockcerts.org/ Accessed 20 May 2023.

  39. Guustaaf E, Rahardja U, Aini Q, Maharani HW, Santoso NA. Blockchain-based education project. Aptisi Trans Manage (ATM). 2021;5(1):46–61. https://doi.org/10.33050/atm.v5i1.1433.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. M. Kuzlu, M. Pipattanasomporn, L. Gurses, and S. Rahman, “Performance analysis of a hyperledger fabric blockchain framework: Throughput, latency and scalability,” in Proceedings - 2019 2nd IEEE International Conference on Blockchain, Blockchain 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Jul. 2019;536–540. https://doi.org/10.1109/Blockchain.2019.00003.

  41. M. Dabbagh, M. Kakavand, M. Tahir, and A. Amphawan, “Performance Analysis of Blockchain Platforms: Empirical Evaluation of Hyperledger Fabric and Ethereum,” in IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Engineering and Technology, IICAIET 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Sep. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1109/IICAIET49801.2020.9257811.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors of this paper express their gratitude to the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq, as well as to Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) and International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) in Kuala Lumpur, for their generous support of this research.

Funding

There is no funding for this manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Omar S. Saleh.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no affiliation with any organization with a direct or indirect interest in the subject matter discussed in the manuscript.

Human and animal rights

Human participants.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the topical collection “Machine Intelligence and Smart Systems” guest edited by Manish Gupta and Shikha Agrawal.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Saleh, O.S., Ghazali, O. & Idris, N.B. Enhancing Academic Certificate Privacy with a Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain-Based Access Control Approach. SN COMPUT. SCI. 4, 602 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42979-023-02060-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42979-023-02060-0

Keywords

Navigation