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The potential health risks and environmental pollution associated with the application of plant growth regulators in vegetable production in several suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam


Plant growth regulators (PGRs) play a pivotal role in increasing vegetable productivity, but they have many drawbacks that can include health and safe concerns of consumers. In this study, the plant growth regulators (PGRs) contents of 111 Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. samples collected from six main suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam, were determined by liquid chromatography—electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed the presence of PGRs residues in 83 analyzed samples (74.77%). Eight PGRs, including Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), Indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), 3-Indolepropionic acid (IPA), Gibberellin A3 (GA3), Gibberellin A4 (GA4), Gibberellin A7 (GA7) and Trans-zeatin (tZ), were found in B. juncea with the average residues dropped in the range of 0.04 and 0.65 mg kg−1. GA4 was considered as the most popular PGR applying in vegetable production in the investigated areas. Notably, the concentrations of gibberellins were higher than the regulations in vegetables and fruits in Europe, USA and Japan. This might be the potential health risks to consumers and environmental pollution, which necessary to be controlled with consideration of residue regulations.

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This study was supported by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam, Grant Numbers TD NDTP.01/19-21 and QTHU01.01/20-21, and National Research, Development and Innovation Office, Hungary, Grant Number K124430.

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Correspondence to Quang Trung Nguyen.

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Le, V.N., Nguyen, Q.T., Nguyen, T.D. et al. The potential health risks and environmental pollution associated with the application of plant growth regulators in vegetable production in several suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 71, 323–331 (2020).

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  • Brassica juncea
  • Plant growth regulator
  • Gibberellin
  • Auxin
  • Cytokinin