Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

NovaSil Clay for the Protection of Humans and Animals from Aflatoxins and Other Contaminants

  • Published:
Clays and Clay Minerals

Abstract

Aflatoxin contamination of diets results in disease and death in humans and animals. The objective of the present paper was to review the development of innovative enterosorption strategies for the detoxification of aflatoxins. NovaSil clay (NS) has been shown to decrease exposures to aflatoxins and prevent aflatoxicosis in a variety of animals when included in their diets. Results have shown that NS clay binds aflatoxins with high affinity and high capacity in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a notable reduction in the bioavailability of these toxins without interfering with the utilization of vitamins and other micronutrients. This strategy is already being utilized as a potential remedy for acute aflatoxicosis in animals and as a sustainable intervention via diet. Animal and human studies have confirmed the apparent safety of NS and refined NS clay (with uniform particle size). Studies in Ghanaians at high risk of aflatoxicosis have indicated that NS (at a dose level of 0.25% w/w) is effective at decreasing biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure and does not interfere with levels of serum vitamins A and E, iron, or zinc. A new spinoff of this strategy is the development and use of broad-acting sorbents for the mitigation of environmental chemicals and microbes during natural disasters and emergencies. In summary, enterosorption strategies/therapies based on NS clay are promising for the management of aflatoxins and as sustainable public health interventions. The NS clay remedy is novel, inexpensive, and easily disseminated.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abbes, S., Ouanes, Z., Salah-Abbes, J. B., Houas, Z., Oueslati, R., Bacha, H., & Othman, O. (2006). The protective effect of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate against haematological, biochemical and pathological changes induced by Zearalenone in mice. Toxicon, 47(5), 567–574.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abbes, S., Salah-Abbes, J. B., Abdel-Wahhab, M. A., & Ouslati, R. (2009). Immunotoxicological and biochemical effects of aflatoxins in rats prevented by Tunisian montmorillonite with reference to HSCAS. Journal of Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 32(3), 514–522.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abdel-Wahhab, M. A., Nada, S. A., Farag, I. M., Abbas, N. F., & Amra, H. A. (1998). Potential Protective Effect of HSCAS and Bentonite Against Dietary Aflatoxicosis in Rat: with Special Reference to Chromosomal Aberrations. Natural Toxins, 6, 211–218.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abo-Norag, M., Edrington, T., Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., & Phillips, T. D. (1995). Influence of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and virginiamycin on aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 74(4), 626–632.

    Google Scholar 

  • Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Mackie, J., Dash, B., Wiles, M., Taylor, J., Huebner, H., Tang, L., Guan, H., Wang, J. S., & Phillips, T. D. (2005). Chronic toxicological evaluation of dietary NovaSil Clay in Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Food Additives & Contaminants, 22(3), 259–269.

    Google Scholar 

  • Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Wang, Z., Ankrah, N. A., Xu, L., Johnson, N. M., Tang, L., Guan, H., Huebner, H. J., Jolly, P. E., Ellis, W. O., Taylor, R., Brattin, B., Ofori-Adjei, D., Williams, J. H., Wang, J. S., & Phillips, T. D. (2008). NovaSil clay does not affect the concentrations of vitamins A and E and nutrient minerals in serum samples from Ghanaians at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Journal of Food Additives & Contaminants, 25(7), 872–884.

    Google Scholar 

  • Araba, M. & Wyatt, R. (1991). Effects of sodium bentonite, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate NovaSil™, and charcoal on aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 70(6), 6–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Awuor, A. O., Yard, E., Daniel, J. H., Martin, C., Bii, C., Romoser, A., Oyugi, E., Elmore, S., Amwayi, S., Vulule, J., Zitomer, N. C., Rybak, M. E., Phillips, T. D., Montgomery, J. M., & Lewis, L. S. (2016). Evaluation of the efficacy, acceptability and palatability of calcium montmorillonite clay used to reduce aflatoxin B1 dietary exposure in a crossover study in Kenya. Journal of Food Additives and Contaminants, 34(1), 93–102.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bauer, J. (1994). Möglichkeiten zur Entgiftung mykotoxinhaltiger Futtermittel. MonatshefteVeterinarmed, 49, 175–181.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bingham, A. K., Huebner, H. J., Phillips, T. D., & Bauer, J. E. (2004). Identification and reduction of urinary aflatoxin metabolites in dogs. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42(11), 1851–1858.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bonna, R. J., Aulerich, R. J., Bursian, S. J., Poppenga, R. H., Braselton, W. E., & Watson, G. L. (1991). Efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and activated charcoal in reducing the toxicity of dietary aflatoxin to mink. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 20(3), 441–447.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, K., Mays, T., Romoser, A., Marroquin-Cardona, A., Mitchell, N., Elmore, S., & Phillips, T. (2014). Modified hydra bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of multiple mycotoxins and predict the detoxification efficacy of a clay-based sorbent. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 34(1), 40–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bursian, S. J., Aulerich, R. J., Cameron, J. K., Ames, N. K., & Steficek, B. A. (1992). Efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate in reducing the toxicity of dietary zearalenone to mink. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 12(2), 85–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Callahan, G. N. (2003). Eating dirt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9(8), 1016–1021.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chestnt, A. B., Anderson, P. D., Cochran, M. A., Fribourg, H. A., & Gwinn, K. D. (1992). Effects of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate on fescue toxicosis and mineral absorption. Journal of Animal Science, 70(9), 2838–2846.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chung, T. K., Ekdman, J. W., & Baker, D. H. (1990a). Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate: Effects on Zinc, Manganese, Vitamin A, and Riboflavin Utilization. Poultry Science, 69(8), 1364–1370.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chung, T. K., Funk, M. A., & Baker, D. H. (1990b). L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylate as a Cysteine Precursor: Efficacy for Growth and Hepatic Glutathione Synthesis in Chicks and Rats. Journal of Nutrition, 120(2), 158–165.

    Google Scholar 

  • Colvin, B. M., Sangster, L. T., Haydon, K. D., Beaver, R. W., & Wilson, D. M. (1989). Effect of a high affinity aluminosilicate sorbent on prevention of aflatoxicosis in growing pigs. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 31(1), 46–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, J. N., Babish, J. G., Delaney, K. A., Taylor, D. R., & Phillips, T. D. (1987). Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate decrease the bioavailability of aflatoxin in the chicken. Poultry Science, 66(Suppl. 1), 89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deng, Y., Velazquez, A. L. B., Billes, F., & Dixon, J. B. (2010). Bonding mechanisms between aflatoxin B1 and smectite. Applied Clay Science, 50(1), 92–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Doerr, J. A. (1989). Effect of an aluminosilicate on broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis. Poultry Science, 68(45).

  • Dupont, C., Foo, J. L. K., Garnier, P., Moore, N., Mathiex-Fortunet, H., & Salazar-Lindo, E. (2009). Oral Diosmectite Reduces Stool Output and Diarrhea Duration in Children With Acute Watery Diarrhea. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 7(4), 456–462.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dwyer, M. R., Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., Mayura, K., Sarr, A. B., Buckley, S., Bailey, R. H., & Phillips, T. D. (1997). Effects of inorganic adsorbents and cyclopiazonic acid in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 76(8), 1141–1149.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edrington, T. S., Sarr, A. B., Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., & Phillips, T. D. (1996). Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS), acidic HSCAS, and activated charcoal reduce urinary excretion of aflatoxin M1 in turkey poults. Lack of effect by activated charcoal on aflatoxicosis. Toxicology Letter, 89(2), 115–122.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elmore, S. E., Mitchell, N., Mays, T., Brown, K., Marroquin-Cardona, A., Romoser, A., & Phillips, T. D. (2014). Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay. Food Control, 37, 27–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giles, C. H., Macewan, T. H., Nakhwa, S. N., & Smith, D. (1960). Studies in Adsorption. Part XI.* A System of Classification of Solution Adsorption Isotherms, and its Use in Diagnosis of Adsorption Mechanisms and in Measurement of Specific Surface Areas of Solids. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, 3973–3993.

  • Giles, C. H., D’Silva, A. P., & Easton, I. A. (1974a). A general treatment and classification of the solute adsorption isotherm part. II. Experimental interpretation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 47(3), 766–778.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giles, C. H., Smith, D., & Huitson, A. (1974b). A general treatment and classification of the solute adsorption isotherm. I. Theoretical. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 47(3), 755–765.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gowda, N. K. S., Ledoux, D. R., Rottinghaus, G. E., Bermudez, A. J., & Chen, Y. C. (2008). Efficacy of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Containing a Known Level of Curcumin, and a Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate to Ameliorate the Adverse Effects of Aflatoxin in Broiler Chicks. Poultry Science, 87(6), 1125–1130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grant, P. J., & Phillips, T. P. (1998). Isothermal Adsorption of Aflatoxin B1 on HSCAS Clay. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(2), 599–605.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harvey, R. B., Huff, W. E., Kubena, L. F., Corrier, D. E., & Phillips, T. D. (1988). Progression of aflatoxicosis in growing barrows. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 49(4), 482–487.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harvey, R. B., Kubena, L. F., Phillips, T. D., Corrier, D. E., Elissalde, M. H., & Huff, W. E. (1991a). Diminution of aflatoxin toxicity to growing lambs by dietary supplementation with hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52(1), 152–156.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harvey, R. B., Phillips, T. D., Ellis, J. A., Kubena, L. F., Huff, W. E., & Petersen, H. D. (1991b). Effects on aflatoxin M1 residues in milk by addition of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to aflatoxin-contaminated diets of dairy cows. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52(9), 1556–1559.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harvey, R. B., Kubena, L. F., Elissalde, M. H., Corrier, D. E., & Phillips, T. D. (1994). Comparison of 2 Hydrated Sodium-Calcium Aluminosilicate Compounds to Experimentally Protect Growing Barrows from Aflatoxicosis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 6(1), 88–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huff, W. E., Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., & Phillips, T. D. (1992). Efficacy of Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate to Reduce the Individual and Combined Toxicity of Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin A. Poultry Science, 71(1), 64–69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jayaprakash, M., Gowda, R. N. S., Vijayasarathi, S. K., & Seshadri, S. J. (1992). Adsorbent efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate in induced aflatoxicosis in broilers. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology, 16, 102–105.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jolly, P., Jiang, Y., Ellis, W., Awuah, R., Nnedu, O., Phillips, T., Wang, J., Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Tang, L., Person, S., Williams, J., & Jolly, C. (2006). Determinants of aflatoxin levels in Ghanaians: Sociodemographic factors, knowledge of aflatoxin and food handling and consumption practices. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 209(4), 345–358.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kensler, T. W., Egner, P. A., Wang, J., Zhu, Y., Zhang, B., Lu, P., Chen, J., Qian, G., Kuang, S., Jackson, P. E., Gangge, S. J., Jacobson, L. P., Munoz, A., & Groopman, J. D. (2004). Chemoprevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Aflatoxin Endemic Areas. Gastroenterology, 127, 310–318.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kinniburgh, D. G. (1986). General Purpose Adsorption Isotherms. Environmental Science & Technology, 20, 895–904.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., Huff, W. E., Corrier, D. E., & Phillips, T. D. (1990a). Efficacy of a Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate to Reduce the Toxicity of Aflatoxin and T-2 Toxin. Poultry Science, 69(7), 1078–1086.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., Phillips, T. D., Corrier, D. E., & Huff, W. E. (1990b). Diminution of aflatoxicosis in growing chickens by the dietary addition of a hydrated, sodium calcium aluminosilicate. Poultry Science, 69(5), 727–735.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kubena, L. F., Huff, W. E., Harvey, R. B., Yersin, A. G., Elissalde, M. H., Witzel, D. A., Giroir, L. E., Phillips, T. D., & Petersen, H. D. (1991). Effects of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate on growing turkey poults during aflatoxicosis. Poultry Science, 70(8), 1823–1830.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., Huff, W. E., Elissalde, M. H., Yersin, A. G., Phillips, T. D., & Rottinghaus, G. E. (1993). Efficacy of a Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate to Reduce the Toxicity of Aflatoxin and Diacetoxyscirpenol. Poultry Science, 72(1), 51–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ledoux, D. R., Rottinghaus, G. E., Bermudez, A. J., & Alonso-Debolt, M. (1999). Efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 78(21), 204–210.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lindemann, M. D., Blodgett, D. J., Kornegay, E. T., & Schurig, G. G. (1993). Potential ameliorators of aflatoxicosis in weanling/growing swine. Journal of Animal Science, 71(1), 171–178.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu, Y. L., Meng, G. Q., Wang, H. R., Zhu, H. L., Hou, Y. Q., Wang, W. J., & Ding, B. Y. (2010). Effect of three mycotoxin adsorbents on growth performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed. Journal of British Poultry Science, 52(2), 255–263.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maki, C. R., Monteiro, A. P. A., Elmore, S. E., Tao, S., Bernard, J. K., Harvey, R. B., Romoser, A. A., & Phillips, T. D. (2016a). Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 214, 130–135.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maki, C. R., Thomas, A. D., Elmore, S. E., Romoser, A. A., Harvey, R. B., Ramirez-Ramirez, H. A., & Phillips, T. D. (2016b). Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 99(2), 1039–1046.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maki, C. R., Allen, S., Wang, M., Ward, S. H., Rude, B. J., Bailey, H. R., Harvey, R. B., & Phillips, T. D. (2017). Calcium Montmorillonite Clay for the Reduction of Aflatoxin Residues in Milk and Dairy Products. Journal of Diary and Veterinary Scicences, 2(3), 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marroquín-Cardona, A., Deng, Y., Taylor, J. F., Hallmark, C. T., Johnson, N. M., & Phillips, T. D. (2009). In vitro and in vivo characterization of mycotoxin-binding additives used for animal feeds in Mexico. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 26(5), 733–743.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marroquin-Cardona, A., Deng, Y., Garcia-Mazcorro, J. F., Johnson, N. M., Mitchell, N. J., Tang, L., Robinson, A., Taylor, J. F., Wang, J. S., & Phillips, T. D. (2010). Characterization and safety of uniform particle size NovaSil clay as a potential aflatoxin enterosorbent. Applied Clay Science, 54(3–4), 248–257.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayura, K., Abdel-Wahhab, M. A., McKenzie, K. S., Sarr, A. B., Edwards, J. F., Naguib, K., & Phillips, T. D. (1998). Prevention of maternal and developmental toxicity in rats via dietary inclusion of common aflatoxin sorbents: potential for hidden risks. Toxicolgical Sciences, 41(2), 175–182.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, J. D., Schaafsma, A. W., Bhatnagar, D., Bondy, G., Carbone, I., Harris, L. J., Harrison, G., Munkvold, G. P., Oswald, I. P., Pestka, J. J., Sharpe, L., Sumarah, M. W., Tittlemier, S. A., & Zhou, T. (2014). Mycotoxins that affect the North American agri-food sector: state of the art and directions for the future. World Mycotoxin Journal, 7(1), 63–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell, N. J., Kumi, J., Johnson, N. M., Dotse, E., Marroquin-Cardona, A., Wang, J. S., Jolly, P. E., Ankrah, N. A., & Phillips, T. D. (2013a). Reduction in the urinary aflatoxin M-1 biomarker as an early indicator of the efficacy of dietary interventions to reduce exposure to aflatoxins. Biomarkers, 18, 391–398.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell, N. J., Xue, K. S., Lin, S., Marroquin-Cardona, A., Brown, K. A., Elmore, S. E., Tang, L., Romoser, A., Gelderblom, W., Wang, J. S., & Phillips, T. D. (2013b). Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 34(7), 795–804.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell, N. J., Kumi, J., Aleser, M., Elmore, S. E., Rychlik, K. A., Zychowski, K. E., Romoser, A. A., Phillips, T. D., & Ankrah, N. (2014). Short-Term Safety and Efficacy of Calcium Montmorillonite Clay (UPSN) in Children. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 91(4), 777–785.

    Google Scholar 

  • Patterson, R., & Yong, L. G. (1993). Efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, screening and dilution in reducing the effects of mold contaminated corn in pigs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 73(3), 615–624.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, T.D. (1999) Dietary clay in the chemoprevention of aflatoxin-induced disease. Toxicological Sciences, 52(suppl_1), 118–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, T. D., Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., Taylor, D. S., & Heidelbaugh, N. D. (1987). Mycotoxin hazards in agriculture: New approach to control. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 190, 1617 (Abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, T. D., Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., Taylor, D. S., & Heidelbaugh, N. D. (1988). Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate: A High Affinity Sorbent for Aflatoxin. Poultry Science, 67(2), 243–247.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, T. D., Clement, B. A., Kubena, L. F., & Harvey, R. B. (1990). Detection and detoxification of aflatoxins: prevention of aflatoxicosis and aflatoxin residues with hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. Strengthening Journalism in Europe, 1(Suppl_15–19).

  • Phillips, T. D., Sarr, A. B., & Grant, P. G. (1995). Selective chemisorption and detoxification of aflatoxins by phyllosilicate clay. Natrual Toxins, 3, 204–213.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, T. D., Lemke, S. L., & Grant, P. G. (2002). Characterization of Clay-Based Enterosorbents for the Prevention of Aflatoxicosis. Mycotoxins and Food Safety, 504, 157–171.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, T. D., Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Wang, J. S., Williams, J. H., & Huebner, H. (2006). The potential of aflatoxin sequestering clay. In D. Barug et al. (Eds.), The Mycotoxin Factbook: Food and Feed Topics (pp. 329–346). Germany: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, T. D., Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Williams, J., Huebner, H., Ankrah, N.-A., Ofori-Adjei, D., Jolly, P., Johnson, N., Taylor, J., Marroquin-Cardona, A., Xu, L., Tang, L., & Wang, J.-S. (2008). Reducing human exposure to aflatoxin through the use of clay: A review. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 25(2), 134–145.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimpukdee, K., Kubena, L. F., Bailey, C. A., Huebner, H. J., Afriyie-Gyawu, E., & Phillips, T. D. (2004). Aflatoxin-induced toxicity and depletion of hepatic vitamin A in young broiler chicks: protection of chicks in the presence of low levels of NovaSil PLUS in the diet. Poultry Science, 83(5), 737–744.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pollock, B. H., Elmore, S., Romoser, A., Tang, L., Kang, M., Xue, K., Rodriguez, M., Dierschke, N., Hayes, H. G., Hansen, H. A., Guerra, F., Wang, J. S., & Phillips, T. D. (2016). Intervention trial with calcium montmorillonite clay in a south Texas population exposed to aflatoxin. Journal of Food Additives and Contaminants, 33(8), 1346–1354.

    Google Scholar 

  • Qian, G., Tang, L., Lin, S., Xue, K. S., Mitchell, N. J., Su, J., Gelderblom, W. C., Riley, R. T., Phillips, T. D., & Wang, J. S. (2016). Sequential dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in F344 rats increases liver preneoplastic changes indicative of a synergistic interaction. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 95, 188–195.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, A., Johnson, N. M., Strey, A., Taylor, J. F., Marroquin-Cardona, A., Mitchell, N. J., Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Ankrah, N. A., Williams, J. H., Wang, J. S., Jolly, P. E., Nachman, R. J., & Phillips, T. D. (2012). Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces urinary biomarkers of fumonisin B1 exposure in rats and humans. Journal of Food Additives and Contaminants, 29(5), 809–818.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sarr, A. B., Mayura, K., Kubena, L. F., Harvey, R. B., & Phillips, T. D. (1995). Effects of phyllosilicate clay on the metabolic profile of aflatoxin B1 in Fischer-344 rats. Toxicology Letter, 75(1–3), 145–151.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schell, T. C., Lindemann, M. D., Kornegay, E. T., Blodgett, D. J., & Doerr, J. A. (1993). Effectiveness of different types of clay for reducing the detrimental effects of aflatoxin-contaminated diets on performance and serum profiles of weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 71(5), 1226–1231.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schulze, D. G. (1989). An Introduction to Soil Mineralogy. Madison: Soil Science Society of America.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, E. E., Phillips, T. D., Ellis, J. A., Harvey, R. B., Kubena, L. F., Thompson, J., & Newton, G. (1994). Dietary hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate reduction of aflatoxin M1 residue in dairy goat milk and effects on milk production and components. Journal of Animal Science, 72(3), 677–682.

    Google Scholar 

  • Southern, E. M., Case-Green, S. C., Elder, J. K., Johnson, M., mir, K. U., Wang, L., & Williams, J. C. (1994). Arrays of complementary oligonucleotides for analysing the hybridisation behaviour of nucleic acids. Nucleic Acids Research, 22(8), 1368–1373.

    Google Scholar 

  • Voss, K. A., Dorner, J. W., & Cole, R. J. (1993). Melioration of Aflatoxicosis in Rats by Volclay NF-BC, Microfine Bentonite. Journal of Food Protection, 56(7), 595–598.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, J. S., Luo, H., Billam, M., Wang, Z., Guan, H., Tang, L., Goldston, T., Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Lovett, C., Griswold, J., Brattin, B., Taylor, R. J., Huebner, H. J., & Phillips, T. D. (2005). Short-term safety evaluation of processed calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) in humans. Food Additives Contaminants, 22(3), 270–279.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, P., Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Tang, Y., Johnson, N. M., Xu, L., Tang, L., Huebner, H. J., Ankrah, N. A., Ofori-Adjei, D., Ellis, W., Jolly, P. E., Williams, J. H., Wang, J. S., & Phillips, T. D. (2008). NovaSil clay intervention in Ghanaians at high risk for aflatoxicosis: II. Reduction in biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure in blood and urine. Food Additives and Contaminants, 25(5), 622–634.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wild, C. P., & Turner, P. C. (2002). The toxicology of aflatoxins as a basis for public health decisions. Mutagenesis, 17(6), 471–481.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wild, C. P., Hudson, G. J., Sabbioni, G., Chapot, B., Hall, A. J., Wogan, G. N., Whittle, H., Montesano, R., & Groopman, J. (1992). Dietary intake of aflatoxins and the level of albumin-bound aflatoxin in peripheral blood in The Gambia, West Africa. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 1(3).

  • Wiles, M., Huebner, H., Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Taylor, R., Bratton, G., & Phillips, T. (2004). Toxicological evaluation and metal bioavailability in pregnant rats following exposure to clay minerals in the diet. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, 67(11), 863–874.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu, F., & Khlangwiset, P. (2010). Evaluating the technical feasibility of aflatoxin risk reduction strategies in Africa. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 27(5), 658–676.

    Google Scholar 

  • Xue, K. S., Qian, G., Lin, S., Su, J., Tang, L., Gelderblom, W. C. A., Riley, R. T., Phillips, T. D., & Wang, J. S. (2018). Modulation of pre-neoplastic biomarkers induced by sequential aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1exposure in F344 rats treated with UPSN clay. Food Chem Toxicol, 114, 316–324.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhao, J., Shirley, R. B., Dibner, J. D., Uraizee, F., Offier, M., Kitchell, M., Vazaquez-Anon, M., & Knight, C. D. (2010). Comparison of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and yeast cell wall on counteracting aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 89(10), 2147–2156.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zychowski, K. E., Elmore, S. E., Rychlik, K. A., Ly, H. J., Pierezan, F., Isaiah, A., Suchodolski, J. S., Hoffmann, A. R., Romoser, A. A., & Phillips, T. D. (2015). Mitigation of Colitis with NovaSil Clay Therapy. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 60(2), 382–392.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The present work was supported by funding through the National Institute of Health (NIH) 1RO1MD005819-01, and the Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and Training Program (NIEHS) P42 ES0277704.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Timothy D. Phillips.

Additional information

[Received 10 April 2018; revised 23 August 2018; AE: J.-H. Choy]

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Phillips, T.D., Wang, M., Elmore, S.E. et al. NovaSil Clay for the Protection of Humans and Animals from Aflatoxins and Other Contaminants. Clays Clay Miner. 67, 99–110 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42860-019-0008-x

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42860-019-0008-x

Keywords

Navigation