A short review on electrochemical exfoliation of graphene and graphene quantum dots

Abstract

The synthesis of graphene and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) employing various approaches with a range of precursors, chemicals, and parameters has been reported. Most of the top-down and bottom-up techniques employ strong and hazardous chemical environments, complicated and tedious procedures, are time-consuming, and often require special equipment. Another drawback of the techniques reported is the production of agglomerated, inhomogeneous, and non-dispersible graphene in aqueous solvents or organic solvents, thus limiting its application. This work specifically and comprehensively describes the electrochemical exfoliation of graphene and GQDs, which is often considered as a simple one-step, facile, non-hazardous, and highly efficient technique yet favourable for mass production. A brief discussion on the advantageous and challenges of the electrochemical technique and applications of the electrochemically exfoliated graphene and GQDs is also presented.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2018/STG01/UIAM/03/2) (FRGS19-015-0623), Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), Malaysia and Department of Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia.

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Danial, W.H., Norhisham, N.A., Ahmad Noorden, A.F. et al. A short review on electrochemical exfoliation of graphene and graphene quantum dots. Carbon Lett. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42823-020-00212-3

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Keywords

  • Electrochemical
  • Exfoliation
  • Graphene
  • Graphene quantum dots