Skip to main content

Inherent Tensions and Possibilities: Behavior Analysis and Cultural Responsiveness

Abstract

The demographics of the United States, and of the world, are rapidly changing; national and racial diversity is increasing and bifurcation of socioeconomic status continues. These societal patterns highlight the tensions and hopeful possibilities inherent in the science and practice of behavior analysis. In this paper, we review the general climate surrounding diverse populations and access to care, characterize the demographics of behavior analysis and leadership, and discuss the synergistic activities two related disciplines, public health and anthropology, may contribute toward social justice. We conclude with recommendations and goals for increasing cultural responsiveness in the study and practice of behavior analysis. Such responsiveness is likely to allow advances in our understanding of how behavior changes and what meaning those changes have for individuals and society.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Abell, M. L., Manuel, J., & Schoeneman, A. (2015). Student attitudes towards religious diversity and implications for multicultural competence. Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work, 34(1), 91–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2014.943920.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Allen, J. S., & Jobson, R. C. (2016). The decolonizing generation: Race and theory in anthropology since the eighties. Current Anthropology, 57(2), 129–148. https://doi.org/10.1086/685502.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Angell, A. M., Frank, G., & Solomon, O. (2016). Latino families’ experiences with autism services: Disparities, capabilities, and occupational justice. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 36(4), 195–203. https://doi.org/10.1177/1539449216666062.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Annamma, S. A., Conner, D., & Ferri, B. (2013). Dis/ability critical race studies (DisCrit): Theorizing at the intersections of race and dis/ability. Race Ethnicity and Education, 16(1), 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2012.730511.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1(1), 91–97. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1987.20-313.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Baer, H. A., Singer, M., & Susser, I. (2004). Medical anthropology and the world system (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bagatell, N. (2007). Orchestrating voices: Autism, identity and the power of discourse. Disability and Society, 22(1), 413–426. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590701337967.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bassey, M. O. (2016). Culturally responsive teaching. Education in Science, 6(4), 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6040035.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Beaulieu, L., Addington, J., & Almeida, D. (2018). Behavior analysts’ training and practices regarding cultural diversity: The case for culturally competent care. Behavior Analysis in Practice. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-00313-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2014). Professional and ethical compliance codefor behavior analysts. Littleton, CO: author.

  11. Berkeley Department of African American Studies. (2018). Regents of the University of California. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://africam.berkeley.edu/about-the-program

  12. Bernal, B. (2006). Intervention development and cultural adaptation research with diverse families. Family Process, 45(2), 143–151. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2006.00087.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Bernard, R. (2018). Research methods anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative (6th ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Betancourt, J. R., Green, A. R., & Carrillo, J. E. (2002). Cultural competence in health care: Emerging frameworks and practical approaches. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund, Quality of Care for Underserved Populations.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Boyle, C. A., Boulet, S., Schieve, L. A., Cohen, R. A., Blumberg, S. J., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., . . . Kogen, M. D. (2011). Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in U.S. children, 1997–2008. Pediatrics, 127, 1034–1042. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-2989

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Castro, A., & Singer, M. (2004). Unhealthy health policies: A critical anthropological examination. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Center for Community Health and Development. (2017). Cultural competence in a multicultural world. In The community tool box (Chapter 27). Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas. Retrieved May 23, 2018, from https://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/culture/cultural-competence

  18. Chen, E., Martin, A. D., & Matthews, K. A. (2006). Understanding health disparities: The role of race and socioeconomic status in children’s health. American Journal of Public Health, 96(4), 702–708. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.048124.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Cohn, D., & Caumont, A. (2016). 10 demographic trends that are shaping the U.S. and the world. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.mrjonesteach.com/uploads/8/8/5/0/88506174/10_demographic_trends.pdf

  20. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Cross, T. L., Bazron, B. J., Dennin, K. W., & Isaacs, M. R. (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of care: A monograph on effective services for minority children who are severely emotionally disturbed. Washington, DC: CASSP Technical Assistance Center, & Georgetown University Child Development Center.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Danso, R. (2015). An integrated framework of critical cultural competence and anti-oppressive practice for social justice social work research. Qualitative Social Work, 14(4), 572–588. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325014558664.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Durkin, M. S., Maenner, M. J., Baio, J., Christensen, D., Daniels, J., Fitzgerald, R., & Imm, P. (2017, November). Autism spectrum disorder among US children (2002–2010): Socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities. American Journal of Public Health. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304032

  24. Durkin, M. S., Maenner, M. J., Meaney, F. J., Levy, S. E., DiGuiseppi, C., Nicholas J. S., . . . Schieve, L. A. (2010). Socioeconomic inequality in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder: Evidence from a U.S. cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 5(7), e11551. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011551

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Fawcett, S. B. (1991). Some value guiding community research and action. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(4), 621–636. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1991.24-621.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Finney, J. W. (1991). On further development of the concept of social validity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 245–249. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1991.24-245.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Fisher-Borne, M., Montana Cain, J. & Martin, S. L. (2015). From mastery toaccountability: Cultural humility as an alternative to cultural competence. Social Work Education, 34(2), 165–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2014.977244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Fong, E. H., Catagnus, R. M., Brodhead, M. T., Quigley, S., & Field, S. (2016). Developing the cultural awareness skills of behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9(1), 84–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-016-0111-6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Fong, E. H., Ficklin, S., & Lee, H. Y. (2017). Increasing cultural understanding and diversity in applied behavior analysis. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, 17(2), 103–113. https://doi.org/10.1037/bar0000076.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Fong, E. H., & Tanaka, S. (2013). Multicultural alliance of behavior analysis standards for cultural competence in behavior analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 8(2), 17–19. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0100970.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Fuchs, C., Lee, J. K., Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2013). Using mindfulness- and acceptance-based treatments with clients from nondominant cultural and/or marginalized backgrounds. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2011.12.004.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Goode, T. D., & Dunne, C. (2003). Rationale for cultural competence in primary health care. Washington, DC: National Center for Cultural Competence.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Greenwood, D. J., & Levin, M. (1998). Introduction to action research: Social research for social change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Harris, B., Barton, E. E., & Albert, C. (2014). Evaluating autism diagnostic and screening tools for cultural and linguistic responsiveness. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(6), 1275–1287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1991-8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Hawley, D. R., & DeHaan, L. (1996). Toward a definition of family resilience: Integrating lifespan and family perspectives. Family Process, 35(3), 283–298. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1996.00283.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Hemphill, B. (2015). Social justice as a moral imperative. The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy 3(2), article 9. https://doi.org/10.15453/2168-6408.1150.

  37. Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 61–135. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X0999152X.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Hook, J. N., Davis, D. E., Owen, J., Worthington, E. L., & Utsey, S. O. (2013). Cultural humility: Measuring openness to culturally diverse clients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(3), 353–366. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032595.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Healthcare in America. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Johnson, L. B. (1964). Remarks in Athens at Ohio University. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=26225

  41. Johnston, B. R., & Downing, C. J. (2004). The Pehuenche: Human rights, the environment, and hydro development on the Biobio River, Chile. In H. Feit & M. Blaser (Eds.), Indigenous peoples, development, and environment (pp. 211–231). London, UK: Zed Books.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Keenan, M., Dillenburger, K., Moderato, P., & Röttgers, H. R. (2010). Science for sale in a free market economy: But at what price? ABA and the treatment of autism in Europe. Behavior and Social Issues, 19, 126–143. https://doi.org/10.5210/bsi.v19i0.2879.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. King, W. D. (2003). Examining African Americans’ mistrust of the healthcare system: Expanding the research question: Commentary on “Race and trust in the health care system.”. Public Health Reports, 118(4), 366–367. https://doi.org/10.1093/phr/118.4.366.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. LaRoche, M., & Christopher, M. S. (2008). Culture and empirically supported treatments: On the road to collision? Culture & Psychology, 14(3), 333–346. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354067X08092637.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. LaRoche, M., & Lustig, K. (2013). Being mindful about the assessment of culture: A cultural analysis of culturally adapted acceptance-based behavior therapy approaches. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(1), 60–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2012.04.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. LaRue, R. (2013). Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST). In F. R. Volkmar (Ed.), Encyclopedia of autism spectrum disorders. New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  47. Levy, B. S., & Sidel, V. W. (2006). The nature of social injustice and its impact on public health. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Li, A., Curiel, H., Pritchard, J., & Poling, A. (2018). Participation of women in behavior analysis research: Some recent and relevant data. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 11(2), 160–164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-0211-6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. Lucyshyn, J. M., Dunlap, G., & Albin, R. W. (2002). Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behavior in family contexts. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Lynch, E. W., & Hanson, M. J. (2011). Developing cross cultural competence: a guidefor working with children and their families. (4th ed). New York, NY: Paul HBrookes Publishing Co.

  51. Mandell, D. S., Wiggins, L. D., Carpenter, L. A., Daniels, J., DiGuiseppi, C., Durkin, M. S., . . . Kirby, R. S. (2009). Racial/ethnic disparities in the identification of children with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Public Health, 99(3), 493–498. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.131243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Mayer, G. R., Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Wallace, M. (2014). Behavior analysis for lasting change (3rd ed.). Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan.

    Google Scholar 

  53. McFarland, J., Hussar, B., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Wang, K., Rathbun, A., . . . Bullock Mann, F. (2018). The condition of education 2018 (Report No. NCES 2018-144). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2018144

  54. McKay, J., & Marshall, P. (2001). The dual imperatives of action research. Information Technology & People, 14(1), 46–59. https://doi.org/10.1108/09593840110384771.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. McKenna, J. (2013). The disproportionate representation of African Americans in programs for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 57(4), 206–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2012.687792.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Murray-Garcia, J., & Tervalon, M. (2014). The concept of cultural humility. Health Affairs, 33, 1303. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0564.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Nosik, M. R., Luke, M. M., & Carr, J. E. (2018). Representation of women in behavior analysis: An empirical analysis. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/bar000118.

  58. Paasche-Orlow, M. (2004). The ethics of cultural competence. Academic Medicine, 79(4), 347–350. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200404000-00012.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Partridge, W. L. (1985). Toward a theory of practice. American Behavioral Scientist, 29(2), 139–163. https://doi.org/10.1177/000276276485029002003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Perera, H., Jeewandara, K. C., Senevirante, S., & Geruge, C. (2017). Culturally adapted pictorial screening tool for autism spectrum disorder: A new approach. World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, 6(1), 45–51. https://doi.org/10.5409/wjcp.v6.i1.45.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  61. Regional Center of the East Bay. (2017). Report on the implementation of the requirements of the California Welfare and Institutions Code Section 4519.5. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://rceb.org/sites/main/files/2017_report.pdf

  62. Rider, E. A., Gilligan, M. C., Osterberg, L. G., Litzelman, D. K., Plews-Ogan, M., Weil, A. B., et al. (2018). Healthcare at the crossroads: The need to shape an organizational culture of humanistic teaching and practice. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 33(7), 1092–1099. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-018-4470-2.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. Rosales, C. B., Coe, K., Ortiz, S., Gamez, G., & Stroupe, N. (2012). Social justice, health, and human rights education: Challenges and opportunities in schools of public health. Public Health Reports, 127, 126–130. https://doi.org/10.1177/003335491212700117.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. Rosenberg, N. E., & Schwartz, I. S. (2018). Guidance or compliance: What makes an ethical behavior analyst? Behavior Analysis in Practice. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-00287-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Schensul, J. J., & Schensul, S. L. (1992). Collaborative research: Methods of inquiry for social change. In M. D. LeCompte, W. L. Millroy, & J. Preissle (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research in education (pp. 161–200). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Singer, M. (2006). Something dangerous: Emergent and changing illicit drug use and community health. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. Oxford, UK: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Spencer, N. J., Blackburn, C. M., & Read, J. M. (2015). Disabling chronic conditions in childhood and socioeconomic disadvantage: A systematic review and meta-analyses of observational studies. BMJ Open, 5, e007062. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007062.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349–367. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1977.10-349.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. Sugai, G., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Fallon, L. M. (2012). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 197–208. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711426334.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Sundberg, M. L. (2008). VB-MAPP Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program: A language and social skills assessment program for children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Concord, CA: AVB Press.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Tan, N. H. S. S. (2002). Deconstructing paternalism - What serves the patient best? Singapore Medical Journal, 43(3), 148–151.

  73. Tax, S. (1958). The Fox Project. Human Organization, 17, 17–19. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.17.1.b1gtr520r323687t.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Tax, S. (1960). Action anthropology. In F. Gearing, F. McNetting, & L. R. Peattie (Eds.), Documentary history of the Fox Project, 1948–1959 (pp. 167–171). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Taylor, B. A., LeBlanc, L. A., & Nosik, M. R. (2018). Compassionate care in behavior analytic treatment: Can outcomes be enhanced by attending to relationships with caregivers? Behavior Analysis in Practice. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-00289-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. United Nations. United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved Oct 24, 2018 from http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights.

  77. U.S. Census Bureau. (2015, March 3). Projections of the size and composition of the U.S. population: 2014 to 2060 (Report No. CB15-TPS.16). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

  78. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2003). Developing cultural competence in disaster mental health programs: Guiding principles and recommendations (HHS Publication No. SMA 3828). Rockville, MD: Author, Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

  79. Van Naarden-Braun, K., Christensen, D., Doemberg, N., Schieve, L., Rice, C., Wiggins, L., . . . Yeargin-Alisopp, M. (2015, April). Trends in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, intellectual disability, and vision impairment, metropolitan Atlanta, 1991–2010. PLoS One. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Walsh, F. (1996). The concept of family resilience: Crisis and challenge. Family Process, 35(3), 261–281. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1996.00261.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Wenger, E., McDermott, R., & Snyder, W. M. (2002). Cultivating communities of practice: A guide to managing knowledge. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Wesolowski, M. D. (2002). Pioneer profiles: An interview with Don Baer. The Behavior Analyst, 25, 135–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03392053.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  83. Westby, C. E., Burda, A., & Mehta, Z. (2003). Asking the right questions in the right ways: Strategies for ethnographic interviewing. The ASHA Leader, 8, 4–17. https://doi.org/10.1044/leader.FTR3.08082003.4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Williams, L. W., Matson, J. L., Beighley, J. S., & Konst, M. (2015). Ethnic disparities in early autism assessment: A large scale screening study of infants and toddlers. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27(2), 141–148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-014-9406-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Winett, R. A., Moore, J. F., & Anderson, E. S. (1991). Extending the concept of social validity: Behavior analysis for disease prevention and health promotion. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 215–230. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1991.224-215.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  86. Wlodkowski, R. J., & Ginsberg, M. B. (1995). A framework for culturally responsive teaching. Educational Leadership, 53(1), 17–21.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Woidneck, M. R., Pratt, K. M., Gundy, J. M., Nelson, C. R., & Twohig, M. P. (2012). Exploring cultural competence in acceptance and commitment therapy outcomes. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(3), 227–233. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Wolf, M. W. (1978). Social validity: The case for subjective measurement or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(2), 203–214. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1978.11-203.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  89. World Bank Group. (2016). Global monitoring report 2015/2016: Development goals in an era of demographic change. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Wright, J. (1983). In K. E. Allen & E. M. Goetz (Eds.), Early childhood education: Special problems, special solutions. Rockville, MD: Aspen.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Wulff, K., Donato, D., & Lurie, N. (2015). What is health resilience and how can we build it? Annual Reviews in Public Health, 36, 361–374. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122829.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kristin L. Miller.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

No authors have known conflicts or dual interests related to this manuscript.

Additional information

The original version of this article was revised: The captions for Figures 1 and 2 are correct, but the artwork currently above the Figure 2 caption belongs above the Figure 1 caption; and the artwork currently above the Figure 1 caption belongs above the Figure 2 caption.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Miller, K.L., Re Cruz, A. & Ala’i-Rosales, S. Inherent Tensions and Possibilities: Behavior Analysis and Cultural Responsiveness. Behav. Soc. Iss. 28, 16–36 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42822-019-00010-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cultural responsiveness
  • Applied behavior analysis
  • Social justice
  • Diversity
  • Ethics