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Serological profile of respiratory viruses in unvaccinated steers upon their arrival at Brazilian feedlot facilities

  • Veterinary Microbiology - Research Paper
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Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoAHV1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) are involved in bovine respiratory disease. These viruses can infect the respiratory system and cause considerable economic losses to beef and dairy cattle herds. This study aimed to determine the serological profiles of steers for BVDV, BoAHV1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 upon their arrival at Brazilian feedlot facilities. A total of 1,282 serum samples from unvaccinated steers were obtained on the first day of feeding. Samples were collected from 31 beef cattle herds reared in an extensive rearing system in six Brazilian states. Antibodies against BVDV, BoAHV1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 were detected using a virus neutralization test. The steers were distributed in agreement with their age and the Brazilian state of origin. The highest seropositivity was for BoAHV1 and BPIV-3 at 92.1% (1,154/1,253) and 86.6% (1,100/1,270), respectively. The seropositivity of BRSV was 77.1% (959/1,244). BVDV presented a lower rate, at slightly more than 50% (51.8%; 656/1,266). Age was a risk factor for the presence of antibodies against BVDV, BoAHV1, and BPIV-3 but not BRSV. A positive correlation was identified between BoAHV1 and BPIV-3 (P = 0.85) and between BRSV and BPIV-3 (P = 0.47). The high rate of seropositive steers for these four respiratory viruses on the first day of confinement identified in this serological survey provides important epidemiological information on respiratory infections, as the seropositivity of the four main bovine respiratory viruses in Brazilian beef cattle herds in an extensive rearing system.

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The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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We thank the following Brazilian Institutes for their financial support: the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), the Financing of Studies and Projects (FINEP), the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES), and the Araucaria Foundation (FAP/PR). A.A. Alfieri and A.F. Alfieri are recipients of CNPq Fellowships.


This study was supported by the National Institute of Science and Technology of Dairy Production Chain (INCT-Leite / CNPq) [Grant number 465725/2014–7].

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Conceptualization and design: LMC, JTTF, EL and AAA; Sample collection: EM and ERC; Methodology: LMC and JTTF; Statistical analysis: ARC; Writing—original draft preparation: LMC; Writing—review and editing: JTTF and EL; Supervision: AFA and AAA. All authors have read, critically analyzed, and approved the final draft of this manuscript.

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Correspondence to Amauri Alcindo Alfieri.

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This study was approved by the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals in Teaching and Research of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Londrina, Brazil, under number 59/2019. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

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Supplementary file1 (DOCX 44 KB) Fig 1a Correlation between BoAHV1 and BPIV-3 means that when one disease has increased incidence other usually also increases. 1b BRSV and BPIV-3, a minor correlation, verified by the distribution of points in the straight

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Chicoski, L.M., Fritzen, J.T.T., Lorenzetti, E. et al. Serological profile of respiratory viruses in unvaccinated steers upon their arrival at Brazilian feedlot facilities. Braz J Microbiol 54, 3237–3244 (2023).

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