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Microbial biofilm: formation, architecture, antibiotic resistance, and control strategies

  • Bacterial and Fungal Pathogenesis - Review
  • Published:
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The assembly of microorganisms over a surface and their ability to develop resistance against available antibiotics are major concerns of interest. To survive against harsh environmental conditions including known antibiotics, the microorganisms form a unique structure, referred to as biofilm. The mechanism of biofilm formation is triggered and regulated by quorum sensing, hostile environmental conditions, nutrient availability, hydrodynamic conditions, cell-to-cell communication, signaling cascades, and secondary messengers. Antibiotic resistance, escape of microbes from the body’s immune system, recalcitrant infections, biofilm-associated deaths, and food spoilage are some of the problems associated with microbial biofilms which pose a threat to humans, veterinary, and food processing sectors. In this review, we focus in detail on biofilm formation, its architecture, composition, genes and signaling cascades involved, and multifold antibiotic resistance exhibited by microorganisms dwelling within biofilms. We also highlight different physical, chemical, and biological biofilm control strategies including those based on plant products. So, this review aims at providing researchers the knowledge regarding recent advances on the mechanisms involved in biofilm formation at the molecular level as well as the emergent method used to get rid of antibiotic-resistant and life-threatening biofilms.

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Funding

Financial support was provided by DBT via the DBT NER Twinning Programme vide letter No. BT/PR16149/NER/95/85/ 2015 dated January 19, 2017, and Tezpur University via memo No. DoRD/RIG/10–73/1362-A dated 19/02/2019.

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Muzamil Ahmad Rather had the idea of the article and drafted it; Muzamil Ahmad Rather and Dr. Kuldeep Gupta did the literature search and data analysis; and the work was critically revised by Prof. Manabendra Mandal.

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Correspondence to Manabendra Mandal.

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Highlights

• Biofilm is a safe and antibiotic-resistant home to microorganisms.

• Biofilm formation is a complex and quorum sensing–dependent process.

• Polysaccharides, proteins, eDNA, etc. are the architecture and stability determinants of biofilm.

• Recent advances in physical, chemical, and biological antibiofilm strategies.

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Rather, M.A., Gupta, K. & Mandal, M. Microbial biofilm: formation, architecture, antibiotic resistance, and control strategies. Braz J Microbiol 52, 1701–1718 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00624-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00624-x

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