Advertisement

Detection of Equid gammaherpesvirus 2 and 5 DNA in the upper respiratory tract of asymptomatic horses from Southern Brazil

  • Alais Maria Dall Agnol
  • Edsel Alves Beuttemmuller
  • Daniela Pilz
  • Raquel Arruda Leme
  • Viviane Saporiti
  • Selwyn Arlington Headley
  • Alice Fernandes Alfieri
  • Amauri Alcindo AlfieriEmail author
Veterinary Microbiology - Short Communication
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Equid gammaherpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) and 5 (EHV-5) are members of the Herpesviridae family and have been reported in horse populations worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the upper respiratory tract of horses. Twenty-six nasal swabs were collected from asymptomatic adult horses of two different horse farms (A, n = 18; B, n = 8), both located in Southern Brazil. The EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4, and EHV-5 DNA analyses were performed using nested PCR assays targeting the glycoprotein B gene. Four (15.3%) and 12 (46.1%) of the 26 nasal swab samples were positive for the EHV-2 and EHV-5, respectively. Four (15.3%) horses were detected with both viruses simultaneously. DNA of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in both single and mixed infections was identified in horses from both herds. All swab samples were negative for EHV-1 and EHV-4. This study reports the first detection of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in the upper respiratory tracts of horses in Brazil. The high detection rate of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in asymptomatic adult horses demonstrates that these gammaherpesviruses are circulating in Brazil.

Keywords

Equine Herpesviruses EHV-2 EHV-5 Molecular detection Brazil 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the following Brazilian Institutes for financial support: National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES), Financing of Studies and Projects (FINEP), and the Araucaria Foundation (FAP/PR). Alfieri, AA; Alfieri, AF; Headley, SA; and Dall Agnol, AM are recipients of CNPq fellowships. Leme, RA is a recipient of CAPES fellowship.

Funding

This study was funded by CNPq and CAPES.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

References

  1. 1.
    Hartley CA, Dynon KJ, Mekuria ZH, El-Hage CM, Holloway SA, Gilkerson JR (2013) Equine gammaherpesviruses: perfect parasites? Vet Microbiol 167(1–2):86–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.05.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gilkerson JR, Bailey KE, Diaz-Mendez A, Hartley CA (2015) Update on viral diseases of the equine respiratory tract. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 31(1):91–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2014.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nordengrahn A, Merza M, Ros C, Lindholmc A, Palfl V, Hannant D, Belak S (2002) Prevalence of equine herpesvirus types 2 and 5 in horse populations by using type-specific PCR assays. Vet Res 33(3):251–259.  https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2002013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fortier G, van Erck E, Pronost S, Lekeux P, Thiry E (2010) Equine gammaherpesviruses: pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnosis. Vet J 186(2):148–156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.08.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Drummer HE, Reubel GH, Studdert MJ (1996) Equine gammaherpesvirus 2 (EHV2) is latent in B lymphocytes. Arch Virol 141(3–4):495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Williams KJ, Robinson NE, Lim A, Brandenberger C, Maes R, Behan A, Bolin SR (2013) Experimental induction of pulmonary fibrosis in horses with the gammaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 5. PLoS One 8(10):e77754.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077754 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dunowska M, Holloway SA, Wilks CR, Meers J (2000) Genomic variability of equine herpesvirus-5. Arch Virol 145(7):1359–1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fu ZF, Robinson AJ, Horner GW, Dickinson LG, Grimmett JB, Marshall RB (1986) Respiratory disease in foals and the epizootiology of equine herpesvirus type 2 infection. N Z Vet J 34(9):152–155.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00480169.1986.35331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Borchers K, Wolfinger U, Ludwig H, Thein P, Baxi S, Field HJ, Slater JD (1998) Virological and molecular biological investigations into equine herpes virus type 2 (EHV-2) experimental infections. Virus Res 55(1):101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Williams KJ, Maes R, Del Piero F, Lim A, Wise A, Bolin DC, Caswell J, Jackson C, Robinson NE, Derksen F, Scott MA, Uhal BD, Li X, Youssef SA, Bolin SR (2007) Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis: a newly recognized herpesvirus-associated fibrotic lung disease. Vet Pathol 44(6):849–862.  https://doi.org/10.1354/vp.44-6-849 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harless W, Pusterla N (2006) Equine Herpesvirus 1 and 4 respiratory disease in the horse. Clin Tech Equine Pract 5(3):197–202.  https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ctep.2006.03.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Costa EA, Lima GBL, Castro RT, Furtini R, Portilho RV, Resende M (2008) Meningoencephalitis in a horse associated with equine herpesvirus 1. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 60:1580–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Panziera W, Giaretta PR, Galiza GJN, Lim A, Bolin SR, Borges CH, Fighera RA, Barros CSL (2014) Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis associated with equine herpesvirus 5 in a horse in Brazil. Braz J Vet Pathol 7(1):17–20Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boom R, Sol CJ, Salimans MM, Jansen CL, Wertheim-van Dillen PM, van der Noordaa J (1990) Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. J Clin Microbiol 28(3):495–503Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang L, Raidal SL, Pizzirani A, Wilcox GE (2007) Detection of respiratory herpesviruses in foals and adult horses determined by nested multiplex PCR. Vet Microbiol 121(1–2):18–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.11.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    World Organisation for Animal Health (2008) Equine rhinopneumonitis. http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.05.09_EQUINE_RHINO.pdf. Accessed 08/09/2017
  17. 17.
    Borchers K, Slater J (1993) A nested PCR for the detection and differentiation of EHV-1 and EHV-4. J Virol Methods 45(3):331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thorsteinsdottir L, Torfason EG, Torsteinsdottir S, Svansson V (2013) Genetic diversity of equine gammaherpesviruses (gamma-EHV) and isolation of a syncytium forming EHV-2 strain from a horse in Iceland. Res Vet Sci 94(1):170–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2012.07.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stasiak K, Dunowska M, Rola J (2018) Prevalence and sequence analysis of equid herpesviruses from the respiratory tract of Polish horses. Virol J 15(1):106.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-018-1018-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Craig MI, Barrandeguy ME, Fernandez FM (2005) Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infection in thoroughbred horses in Argentina. BMC Vet Res 1:9.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-1-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Galosi CM, de la Paz VC, Fernandez LC, Martinez JP, Craig MI, Barrandeguy M, Etcheverrrigaray ME (2005) Isolation of equine herpesvirus-2 from the lung of an aborted fetus. J Vet Diagn Investig 17(5):500–502.  https://doi.org/10.1177/104063870501700520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reubel GH, Crabb BS, Studdert MJ (1995) Diagnosis of equine gammaherpesvirus 2 and 5 infections by polymerase chain reaction. Arch Virol 140(6):1049–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Franchini M, Akens M, Bracher V, von Fellenberg R (1997) Characterisation of gamma herpesviruses in the horse by PCR. Virology 238(1):8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smith FL, Watson JL, Spier SJ, Kilcoyne I, Mapes S, Sonder C, Pusterla N (2018) Frequency of shedding of respiratory pathogens in horses recently imported to the United States. J Vet Intern Med 32(4):1436–1441.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dunowska M, Wilks CR, Studdert MJ, Meers J (2002) Equine respiratory viruses in foals in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 50(4):140–147.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2002.36300 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nordengrahn A, Rusvai M, Merza M, Ekstrom J, Morein B, Belak S (1996) Equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) as a predisposing factor for Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals: prevention of the bifactorial disease with EHV-2 immunostimulating complexes. Vet Microbiol 51(1–2):55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alais Maria Dall Agnol
    • 1
    • 2
  • Edsel Alves Beuttemmuller
    • 1
    • 3
  • Daniela Pilz
    • 1
  • Raquel Arruda Leme
    • 1
    • 3
  • Viviane Saporiti
    • 1
  • Selwyn Arlington Headley
    • 4
    • 5
  • Alice Fernandes Alfieri
    • 1
    • 3
  • Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus UniversitárioUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Center for Agroveterinary SciencesUniversidade do Estado de Santa CatarinaLagesBrazil
  3. 3.Multi-User Animal Health Laboratory, Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus UniversitárioUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Department of Veterinary Preventive MedicineUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  5. 5.Multi-User Animal Health Laboratory, Tissue Processing Unit, Department of Veterinary Preventive MedicineUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil

Personalised recommendations