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Group-Based Emotions and Support for Reparations: A Meta-analysis

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Abstract

In the aftermath of intergroup harm, victim groups often claim rights for restitution. Research has assessed how members of perpetrator groups respond to such claims, revealing that group-based guilt, shame, and anger can predict support for reparations. Though they have distinct foci, these group-based emotions are based on appraisals of ingroup harmdoing and victim group disadvantage as illegitimate. This meta-analysis investigates the relationship between these three group-based emotions and support for reparations, defined as symbolic or material policies that address historical injustices or the legacies thereof. An overall estimate based on 101 effect sizes from 58 samples, N = 10,305, showed a strong effect, r = .44, and revealed no significant difference between the three types of emotions. Moderator analyses revealed that the relationship between group-based guilt and reparations was weaker when the reparations required effort and stronger when the victims were Indigenous people; for shame, the relationship was weaker when the reparations required effort and stronger when the reparations contained symbolic elements; and for anger, the relationship was stronger when the victims were Indigenous people. Future research can further disentangle the conceptual overlap between these group-based emotions by explicitly testing heretofore under-examined yet important facets of intergroup contexts such as the timeframe of harm and the nature and meaning of the proposed reparations.

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Correspondence to Nader Hakim.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

Author Contribution

NH and AS wrote the first draft and collected the articles. NH and AS conducted data analysis. NH and NB wrote the final drafts.

Data Availability

The dataset, articles, and analysis code are all available (anonymized) on the Open Science Framework at https://osf.io/qx5ck/?view_only=c3df9628f3344fe780315ef7de9f0695.

Ethics approval

All studies in the meta-analysis were approved by IRBs at their respective institutions.

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All participants in studies completed informed consent in accordance with ethics guidelines.

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Handling Editor: Ruthie Pliskin

Appendix

Appendix

Table 2 Overview of included primary studies with effect sizes and moderator values

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Hakim, N., Branscombe, N. & Schoemann, A. Group-Based Emotions and Support for Reparations: A Meta-analysis. Affec Sci 2, 363–378 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42761-021-00055-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42761-021-00055-9

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