Measurement of local two-phase flow parameters of downward bubbly flow in mini pipes

  • Tatsuya HazukuEmail author
  • Tomonori Ihara
  • Takashi Hibiki
Research Article


In order to extend a precise database on local two-phase flow parameters in mini pipes, experiments were conducted for adiabatic gas–liquid bubbly flows flowing down in vertical mini pipes with inner diameters of 1.03, 3.00, and 5.00 mm. A stereo image-processing was applied to observe the phase distribution characteristics in pipe cross-section. The local flow parameters including profiles of void fraction, Sauter mean bubble diameter, and interfacial area concentration in pipe cross-section were obtained at three axial locations in the test pipes with various flow conditions: superficial gas velocity of 0.00508–0.0834 m/s and superficial liquid velocity of 0.208–3.00 m/s. The axial developments of the local flow parameters were discussed in detail based on the obtained data and the visual observation. It was confirmed that the core peak distributions were formed at low liquid flow rate conditions in which the buoyancy force dominated while the wall peak distributions were formed at high liquid flow rate conditions in which the body acceleration due to the frictional pressure gradient dominated. The result indicated the existence of lift force pushing the bubbles towards the pipe wall even in vertical downward flows. The database obtained through the present experiment is expected to be useful in modeling the interfacial area transport terms, the validation of the existing lift force models as well as the benchmarking of various CFD simulation codes.


two-phase flow bubbly flow phase distribution lift force two-fluid model interfacial area transport mini channel 



The authors are thankful to Professor T. Takamasa and Mrs. Y. Ohkubo of Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology for their assistance in conducting the experiment.


  1. Chuang, T. J., Hibiki, T. 2015. Vertical upward two-phase flow CFD using interfacial area transport equation. Prog Nucl Energ, 85: 415–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Delhaye, J. M., Bricard, P. 1994. Interfacial area in bubbly flow: Experimental data and correlations. Nucl Eng Des, 151: 65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ghiaasiaan, S. M. 2003. Gas–liquid two-phase flow and boiling in mini and microchannels. Multiphase Sci Tech, 15: 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gibson, A. H. 1913. LXXXIV. On the motion of long air-bubbles in a vertical tube. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, 26: 952–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hazuku, T., Hibiki, T., Takamasa, T. 2016. Interfacial area transport due to shear collision of bubbly flow in small-diameter pipes. Nucl Eng Des, 310: 592–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hazuku, T., Takamasa, T., Hibiki T. 2012. Characteristics of developing vertical bubbly flow under normal and microgravity conditions. Int J Multiphase Flow, 38: 53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hazuku, T., Takamasa, T., Hibiki, T. 2010. Interfacial-area transport of vertical upward bubbly flow in mini pipe. Int J Microscale and Nanoscale Thermal and Fluid Transport Phenomena, 1: 59–84.Google Scholar
  8. Hazuku, T., Takamasa, T., Hibiki, T. 2015. Phase distribution characteristics of bubbly flow in mini pipes under normal and microgravity conditions. Microgravity Sci Tech, 27: 75–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hibiki, T., Hazuku, T., Takamasa, T., Ishii, M. 2007. Some characteristics of developing bubbly flow in a vertical mini pipe. Int J Heat Fluid Fl, 28: 1034–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hibiki, T., Hazuku, T., Takamasa, T., Ishii, M. 2009. Interfacial-area transport equation at reduced-gravity conditions. AIAA J, 47: 1123–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hibiki, T., Hogsett, S., Ishii, M. 1998. Local measurement of interfacial area, interfacial velocity and liquid turbulence in two-phase flow. Nucl Eng Des, 184: 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hibiki, T., Ishii, M. 2001. Interfacial area concentration in steady fully-developed bubbly flow. Int J Heat Mass Tran, 44: 3443–3461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hibiki, T., Ishii, M. 2003. One-dimensional drift-flux model and constitutive equations for relative motion between phases in various two-phase flow regimes. Int J Heat Mass Tran, 46: 4935–4948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hibiki, T., Ishii, M. 2009. Interfacial area transport equations for gas–liquid flow. The Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows, 1: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hibiki, T., Ozaki, T., Shen, X. Z., Miwa, S., Kinoshita, I., Hazuku, T., Rassame, S. 2018. Constitutive equations for vertical upward twophase flow in rod bundle. Int J Heat Mass Tran, 127: 1252–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hibiki, T., Takamasa, T., Ishii, M., Gabriel, K. S. 2006. One-dimensional drift-flux model at reduced gravity conditions. AIAA J, 44: 1635–1642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ishii, M., Hibiki, T. 2010. Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow, 2nd edn. Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  18. Kandlikar, S. G. 2002. Two-phase flow patterns, pressure drop, and heat transfer during boiling in minichannel flow passages of compact evaporators. Heat Transfer Eng, 23: 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kandlikar, S. G. 2004. Heat transfer mechanisms during flow boiling in microchannels. J Heat Transfer, 126: 8–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kocamustafaogullari, G., Huang, W. D., Razi, J. 1994. Measurement and modeling of average void fraction, bubble size and interfacial area. Nucl Eng Des, 148: 437–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lin, C. H., Hibiki, T. 2014. Databases of interfacial area concentration in gas–liquid two-phase flow. Prog Nucl Energ, 74: 91–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu, H., Hibiki, T. 2018. Bubble breakup and coalescence models for bubbly flow simulation using interfacial area transport equation. Int J Heat Mass Tran, 126: 128–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Milliest, M., Drew, D. A., Lahey, R. T. Jr. 1996. A first order relaxation model for the prediction of the local interfacial area density in two-phase flows. Int J Multiphase Flow, 22: 1073–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mishima, K., Hibiki, T. 1996. Some characteristics of air–water twophase flow in small diameter vertical tubes. Int J Multiphase Flow, 22: 703–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Qu, W. L., Mudawar, I. 2003. Measurement and prediction of pressure drop in two-phase micro-channel heat sinks. Int J Heat Mass Tran, 46: 2737–2753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Serizawa, A., Feng, Z. P., Kawara, Z. 2002. Two-phase flow in microchannels. Exp Therm Fluid Sci, 26: 703–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shen, X. Z., Hibiki, T. 2018. Bubble coalescence and breakup model evaluation and development for two-phase bubbly flows. Int J Multiphase Flow, 109: 131–149.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shen, X. Z., Schlegel, J. P., Hibiki, T., Nakamura, H. 2018. Some characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase flow in vertical largediameter channels. Nucl Eng Des, 333: 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Takamasa, T., Goto, T., Hibiki, T., Ishii, M. 2003. Experimental study of interfacial area transport of bubbly flow in small-diameter tube. Int J Multiphase Flow, 29: 395–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Takamasa, T., Miyoshi, N. 1993. Measurements of bubble interface configurations in vertical bubbly flow using image-processing method. Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series B, 59: 2403–2409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tomiyama, A., Kataoka, I., Zun, I., Sakaguchi, T. 1998. Drag coefficients of single bubbles under normal and micro gravity conditions. JSME International Journal Series B, 41: 472–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wu, Q., Ishii, M. 1999. Sensitivity study on double-sensor conductivity probe for the measurement of interfacial area concentration in bubbly flow. Int J Multiphase Flow, 25: 155–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang, W., Hibiki, T., Mishima, K., Mi, Y. 2006. Correlation of critical heat flux for flow boiling of water in mini-channels. Int J Heat Mass Tran, 49: 1058–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zuber, N., Findlay, J. A. 1965. Average volumetric concentration in two-phase flow systems. J Heat Transf, 87: 453–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatsuya Hazuku
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tomonori Ihara
    • 1
  • Takashi Hibiki
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Marine TechnologyTokyo University of Marine Science and TechnologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.School of Nuclear EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations