Chestnut Response to Organo-mineral and Controlled-Release Fertilizers in Rainfed Growing Conditions

Abstract

In the context of climate change, chestnut fertilization is receiving great attention in the Mediterranean basin, due to the increase in the unpredictability of the pluviometric regime which makes it difficult to determine the optimal timing of fertilizer applications. The purpose of this work was to assess the suitability of fertilizers with mechanisms for nutrient protection on the increase of tree nutritional status and crop productivity. Four fertilizers with restricted nutrient solubility were tested: Bioscape 5:14:7 (32.8% organic matter (OM)); Humix 13:3:5 (80.1% OM); Exactyon AG 6:15:8 (37.7% N and 33.1% P encapsulated); and Exactyon AG 18:5:13 (47% N encapsulated, 28.8% N as urea coated with ammonium sulfate). The trials were carried out for four years in Moimenta and Meixedo, NE Portugal, which also received a non-fertilized control. In Moimenta the ground was managed by tillage and in Meixedo by a cover of natural vegetation. Exactyon AG 18:5:13, being the most concentrated in N and B, gave significantly higher cumulative (2015–2018) nut yields (146.6 kg tree−1) than the control (52.3 kg tree−1) in the Moimenta trial. The results were explained by the increase in leaf N and B levels, which in the control treatment were in the deficiency range. In Meixedo there were not found significant differences among treatments, likely due to the competition by cover crop for resources. The results showed that the response of the trees to the fertilizers relied mainly in their content in nutrients limiting to the agroecosystem and less in the mechanisms of nutrient protection.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Alef K, Nannipieri P, Trazar-Cepeda C (1995) Phosphatase activity. In: Alef K, Nannipieri P (eds) Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 214–215

    Google Scholar 

  2. Álvarez-Álvarez P, Díaz-Varela E, Cámara-Obregón A, Afif-Khouri E (2010) Relating growth and nutrition to site factors in young chestnut plantations established on agricultural and forest land in northern Spain. Agrofor Syst 79:291–301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Arrobas M, Parada MJ, Magalhães P, Rodrigues MA (2011) Nitrogen-use efficiency and economic efficiency of slow-release N fertilisers applied to irrigated turfs in a Mediterranean environment. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 89:329–339

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Arrobas M, Afonso S, Ferreira IQ, Moutinho-Pereira JM, Correia CM, Rodrigues MA (2017) Liming and application of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and boron on a young plantation of chestnut. Turk J Agric For 41:441–451

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Arrobas M, Afonso S, Rodrigues MA (2018) Diagnosing the nutritional condition of chestnut groves by soil and leaf analyses. Sci Hortic 228:113–121

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Arrobas M, Ribeiro AC, Barreales D, Pereira E, Rodrigues MA (2019) Soil and foliar nitrogen and boron fertilization of almond trees grown under rainfed conditions. Eur J Agron 106:39–48

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Borges O, Gonçalves B, Soeiro JL (2008) Nutritional quality of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal. Food Chem 106:976–984

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Crame W, Guiot J, Fader M, Garrabou J, Gattuso JP, Iglesias A, Lange MA, Lionello P, Llasat MC, Paz S, Peñuelas J, Snoussi M, Toreti A, Tsimplis MN, Xoplaki E (2018) Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean. Nat Clim Chang 8:972–980

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Echegaray N, Gomez B, Barba FJ, Franco D, Estevez M, Carballo J, Marszałek K, Lorenzo JM (2018) Chestnuts and by-products as source of natural antioxidants in meat and meat products: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 82:110–121

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Fernández-Escobar R (2017) Fertilization. In: Barranco D, Fernández-Escobar R, Rallo L (eds) El Cultivo del Olivo, 7th edn. Mundi-Prensa, Madrid, pp 419–460

    Google Scholar 

  11. Ferreira IQ, Rodrigues MA, Moutinho-Pereira JM, Correia C, Arrobas M (2018) Olive tree response to applied phosphorus in field and pot experiments. Scientia Horticulturae Sci Hort 234:236–244

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Gençer NS, Mert C (2019) Studies on the gall characteristics of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in chestnut genotypes in Yalova and Bursa provinces of Turkey. Not Bot Hort Agrobo 47(1):177–182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Gouveia ME, Choupina A, Coelho V, Monte E, Hermosa R, Abreu CG (2005) Diagnosis of ink disease of chestnut by molecular identification of associated Phytophthora species. Acta Hortic 639:585–589

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Gucci R, Caruso G, Bertolla C, Urbani S, Taticchi A, Esposto S, Servili M, Sifola MI, Pellegrini S, Pagliai M, Vignozzi N (2012) Changes of soil properties and tree performance induced by soil management in a high-density olive orchard. Eur J Agron 41:18–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Gupta UC (2007) Boron. In: Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ (eds) Handbook of plant nutrition. CRC, pp 241–277

  16. Havlin JL, Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaton JD (2014) Soil fertility and fertilizers, an introduction to nutrient management, 8th edn. Pearson, Boston

    Google Scholar 

  17. Hoagland L, Carpenter-Boggs L, Granatstein D, Mazzola M, Smith J, Peryea F, Reganold JP (2008) Orchard floor management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established organic apple orchard. Biol Fertil Soils 45:11–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Houba VJG, van der Lee JJ, Novozamsky I (1997) Soil analysis procedures. Landbouwuniversiteit Wagningen, Other Procedures

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kitayama K (2013) The activities of soil and root acid phosphatase in the nine tropical rain forests that differ in phosphorus availability on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Plant Soil 367:215–224

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Liakopoulos G, Stavrianakou S, Filippou M, Fasseas C, Tsadilas C, Drossopoulos I, Karabourniotis G (2005) Boron remobilization at low boron supply in olive (Olea europaea) in relation to leaf and phloem mannitol concentrations. Tree Physiol 25:157–165

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Marquez-Garcia F, Gonzalez-Sanchez EJ, Castro-Garcia S, Ordoñez-Fernandez R (2013) Improvement of soil carbon sink by cover crops in olive orchards under semiarid conditions. Influence of the type of soil and weed. Span J Agric Res 11(2):335–346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Martins A, Marques G, Borges O, Portela E, Lousada J, Raimundo F, Madeira M (2011) Management of chestnut plantations for a multifunctional land use under Mediterranean conditions: effects on productivity and sustainability. Agrofor Syst 81:175–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Maurel M, Robin C, Capron G, Desprez-Loustau M-L (2001) Effects of root damage associated with Phytophthora cinnamomi on water relations, biomass accumulation, mineral nutrition and vulnerability to water deficit of Æve oak and chestnut species. For Path 31:353–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Montanaro G, Xiloyannis C, Nuzzo V, Dichio B (2017) Orchard management, soil organic carbon and ecosystem services in Mediterranean fruit tree crops. Sci Hortic 217:92–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Murolo S, Concas J, Romanazzi G (2019) Use of biocontrol agents as potential tools in the management of chestnut blight. Biol Control 132:102–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Oliet J, Planelles R, Segura ML, Artero F, Jacobs DF (2004) Mineral nutrition and growth containerized Pinus halepensis seedlings under controlled-release fertilizer. Sci Hortic 103:113–129

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Olk, DC 2008 Organic forms of soil nitrogen. In: J. S. Schepers, W. R. Raun (Eds.), Nitrogen in agricultural systems. Agronomy Monograph n.° 49. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madison, WI, USA, pp: 57–100

  28. Portela E, Ferreira-Cardoso JV, Louzada JL (2011) Boron application on a chestnut orchard: effect on yield and quality of nuts. J Plant Nutr 34:1245–1253

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Portela E, Ferreira-Cardoso J, Louzada J, Gomes-Laranjo J (2015) Assessment of boron application in chestnuts: nut yield and quality. J Plant Nutr 38:973–987

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Rodrigues MA, Santos H, Ruivo S, Arrobas M (2010) Slow-release N fertilisers are not an alternative to urea for fertilisation of autumn-grown tall cabbage. Eur J Agron 32(2):137–143

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Rodrigues MA, Pavão F, Lopes JI, Gomes V, Arrobas M, Moutinho-Pereira J, Ruivo S, Cabanas JE, Correia CM (2011) Olive yields and tree nutritional status during a four year period without nitrogen and boron fertilization. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 42(7):803–814

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Sarafi E, Siomos A, Tsouvaltzis T, Chatzissavvidis I, C. (2018) The influence of boron on pepper plants nutritional status and nutrient efficiency. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 18(3):653–667

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Silvestri N, Giannini V, Antichi D (2018) Intercropping cover crops with a poplar short rotation coppice: effects on nutrient uptake and biomass production. Ital J Agron 13:934

    Google Scholar 

  34. Soyergin S (2010) Effects of soil and leaf treatments to eliminate boron deficiency in olives. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 41:2004–2010

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Torres MR-R, Ordóñez-Fernández R, Giráldez JV, Márquez-García J, Laguna A, Carbonell-Bojollo R (2018) Efficiency of four different seeded plants and native vegetation as cover crops in the control of soil and carbon losses by water erosion in olive orchards. Land Degrad Dev 29:2278–2290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Trenkel M (2010) Slow- and controlled-release and stabilized fertilizers: an option for enhancing nutrient efficiency in agriculture, 2nd edn. International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  37. Wei H, Chen Z, Xing Z, Zhou L, Liu Q, Zhang Z, Jiang Y, Hu Y, Zhu J, Cui P, Dai Q, Zhang H (2018) Effects of slow or controlled release fertilizer types and fertilization modes on yield and quality of rice. J Integr Agric 17(10):2222–2234

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Zhang G, Chen Z, Zhang A, Chen L, Wu Z, Ma X (2014) Phosphorus composition and phosphatase activities in soils affected by long-term application of pig manure and inorganic fertilizers. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 45:1866–1876

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Zhang W, Liang Z, He X, Wang X, Shi X, Zou C, Chen X (2019) The effects of controlled release urea on maize productivity and reactive nitrogen losses: a meta-analysis. Environ Pollut 246:559–565

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study received financial support from the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) and FEDER under Programme PT2020 to CIMO (UID/AGR/00690/2015) and FEADER (The European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development) through the project CMP122 - PDR2020-101-030981 – EGIS, Estratégias para uma Gestão Integrada do Solo e da Água em Espécies Produtoras de Frutos Secos.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Manuel Ângelo Rodrigues.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rodrigues, M.Â., Grade, V., Barroso, V. et al. Chestnut Response to Organo-mineral and Controlled-Release Fertilizers in Rainfed Growing Conditions. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 20, 380–391 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42729-019-00119-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Castanea sativa
  • Nut yield
  • Crop removal
  • Crop nutritional status
  • Fertilizers