Carbonate-β-Cyclodextrin-Based Nanosponge as a Nanoencapsulation System for Piperine: Physicochemical Characterization

Abstract

Piperine (PIP) is a nitrogenous substance whose application in food is still limited due to its low solubility in water, low bioavailability, and high pungency. Nanosponges (NS) can selectively capture, transport, and release a wide variety of substances and mask unpleasant flavors. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbonate-β-cyclodextrin-based NS formation as a nanoencapsulation system for PIP. The NS were formed with a cyclic oligosaccharide (β-cyclodextrin) to a cross-linker (diphenyl carbonate) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:6, and 1:10 by the solvent method at 90, 120, and 150 °C for 5 h. Only molar ratios of 1:6 and 1:10 formed NS. The NS 1:6 at 90 °C with loading efficiency of 42.6% ± 1.1 was the best alternative for loading PIP in the NS matrix because it had the lowest absorbance of cyclic carbonates and required the lowest amount of cross-linker in its formation. The ability of the cyclodextrin-based NS to encapsulate PIP was confirmed by FTIR studies and hyperspectral FTIR images, TGA, and DSC, showing that PIP is dispersed, not forming large clusters, or concentrating in a single zone. NS are an effective PIP encapsulation system and protect the bioactive properties of the PIP.

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to projects FONDEQUIP EQM150019 and FONDEQUIP EQM160152 for granting access to their equipment and to Dr. Helen Lowry for her support in editing the English in the manuscript.

Funding

This research was funded by CONICYT through FONDECYT project No 1160558.

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Correspondence to M. Rubilar.

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Garrido, B., González, S., Hermosilla, J. et al. Carbonate-β-Cyclodextrin-Based Nanosponge as a Nanoencapsulation System for Piperine: Physicochemical Characterization. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 19, 620–630 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42729-019-00062-7

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Keywords

  • Piperine
  • β-Cyclodextrin
  • Nanosponges
  • Nanoencapsulation
  • Solvent method
  • Inclusion complex