Zinc Application Enhances Superoxide Dismutase and Carbonic Anhydrase Activities in Zinc-Efficient and Zinc-Inefficient Wheat Genotypes
- 6 Downloads
Deficiency of zinc (Zn) in soils and crops of the world is established fact. There is need for application of Zn application and growing Zn-efficient crop genotypes to tide over the situation. However, information pertaining to application of Zn to Zn-efficient and Zn-inefficient crop genotypes grown in field condition on plant enzyme (wherein Zn is a co-factor) activities is limited. To investigate the influence of different Zn regimes on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities of Zn-efficient and Zn-inefficient wheat genotypes, the present study was carried out comprising three each of Zn-efficient and Zn-inefficient genotypes of wheat grown under field experiment with four Zn treatments such as no Zn, soil Zn, foliar Zn, and both soil and foliar Zn. Application of Zn (soil/foliar/both) enhanced SOD and CA activities of both Zn-efficient and Zn-inefficient genotypes at pre- and post-anthesis growth stages of wheat compared to no Zn. Under no Zn, SOD activities were higher in both Zn-efficient and Zn-inefficient genotypes at post-anthesis stage; however, reverse was true for CA activities. Application Zn enhanced Zn concentration in leaves, stem, and grain of both Zn-efficient and Zn-inefficient genotypes. Grain Zn concentration increased by 25.1, 35.7, and 38.2% with soil, foliar, and both soil and foliar applications of Zn, respectively in Zn-inefficient genotypes and by 7.2, 21.1, and 30.6% with soil, foliar, and both and foliar applications of Zn, respectively in Zn-efficient genotypes, compared to no Zn. In Zn-efficient genotypes, SOD and CA activities contributed about 63 and 77% towards grain Zn concentration, respectively, whereas SOD and CA activities contributed about 50 and 66% towards grain Zn concentration, respectively in Zn-inefficient genotypes. The results indicated that both soil and foliar applications are needed for enhanced SOD and CA activities and plant Zn concentration in wheat. Physiological utilization of Zn plays an important role in Zn efficiency of wheat genotypes.
KeywordsZn biofortification Super oxide dismutase Carbonic anhydrase Zn efficiency Wheat genotypes
The authors thank the Director, ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, for providing the facilities to carry out the research work. The authors also express their gratitude to the editor and the anonymous reviewers for their suggestions to improve the manuscript.
The study was funded through National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) (sub-project code: 417801-08) of Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), New Delhi.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alloway BJ (2008) Zinc in soils and crop nutrition. Second edition, published by IZA and IFA, North American Version. International Plant Nutrition Institute, NorcrossGoogle Scholar
- Cakmak I (2002) Plant nutrition research priorities to meet human needs for food in sustainable ways. Plant Sci 247:3–24Google Scholar
- Cakmak I (2012) Harvest plus zinc fertilizer project: harvest zinc. Better Crops 96:17–19Google Scholar
- Cochran WG, Cox GM (1957) Experimental designs. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Gibson RS, Hess SY, Hotz C, Brown KH (2008) Indicators of zinc status at the population level: a review of the evidence. Brit J Nutr 99(3):14–23Google Scholar
- Han JL, Li YM, Ma CY (2004) The impact of zinc on crop growth and yield (review). J Hebei Normal Univ Sci Technol 18(4):72–75Google Scholar
- He HY, Feng BL, Gao XL, Gao JF, Liu PT, Zhang J (2009) Comparison on the flag leaf aging metabolism of different winter wheat genotypes under three planting models. Acta Ecol Sin 29(7):3775–3781Google Scholar
- Hidoto L, Worku W, Mohammed H, Taran B (2017) Effects of zinc application strategy on zinc content and productivity of chickpea grown under zinc deficient soils. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 17(1):112–126Google Scholar
- Jackson ML (1973) Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275Google Scholar
- Maqsood MA, Rahmatullah, Kanwal S, Aziz T, Ashraf M (2009) Evaluation of Zn distribution among grain and straw of twelve indigenous wheat (Triticum aestivum L) genotypes. Pak J Bot 41:225–231Google Scholar
- Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd edn. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Nazir Q, Arshad Q, Kanwal S, Mahmood S (2014) Zinc deficient cereals in developing world. Technol Times 05:37Google Scholar
- Rengel Z (1999) Physiological mechanisms underlying differential nutrient efficiency of crop genotypes. In: Rengel Z (ed) Mineral nutrition of crops-fundamental mechanisms and implications. Food Products Press, New York, pp 227–265Google Scholar
- SAS Institute (2011) The SAS system for Windows, Release 9.2. SAS Inst., CaryGoogle Scholar
- Shukla AK (2014) Understanding the mechanism of variation in status of a few nutritionally important micronutrients in some important food crops and the mechanism of micronutrient enrichment in plant parts, NAIP Funded Research Project Report. AICRP on Micronutrients, IISS, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, BhopalGoogle Scholar
- Shukla AK, Pakhare A (2015) Trace elements in soil-plant-human continuum. In: Rattan RK et al (eds) Soil science: an introduction. ISSS, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Shukla AK, Tiwari PK (2016) Micro and secondary nutrients and pollutant elements research in India. Coordinators Report- AICRP on Micro- and Secondary Nutrients and Pollutant Elements in Soils and Plants, ICAR-IISS, Bhopal. pp 1–196Google Scholar
- Shukla AK, Tiwari PK, Prakash C (2014) Micronutrients deficiencies vis-à-vis food and nutritional security of India. Indian J Fert 10(12):94–112Google Scholar
- Shukla AK, Tiwari PK, Pakhare A, Prakash C (2016) Zinc and Iron in soil, plant, animal and human health. Indian J Fert 12(11):133–149Google Scholar
- Velu G, Crossa J, Singh RP, Hao Y, Dreisigacker S, Perez-Rodriguez P, Joshi AK, Chatrath R, Gupta V, Balasubramaniam A, Tiwari C, Mishra VK, Sohu VS, Mavi GS (2016) Genomic prediction of grain zinc and iron concentrations in spring wheat. Theor Appl Genet 129:1595–1605. https://doi.org/10.1007/S00122-016-2726-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wasaya A, Shabir MS, Hussain M, Ansar M (2017) Foliar application of zinc and boron improved the productivity and net returns of maize grown under rainfed conditions of Pothwar plateau. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 17(1):33–45Google Scholar
- Wilbur KM, Anderson GA (1948) Electrometric and colorimetric determination of carbonic anhydrase. J Biol Chem 176:147–154Google Scholar
- Xu X, Yu Z, Kong J, Yi M, Huan C, Jiang L (2017) Molecular cloning and expression analysis of cu/Zn SOD gene from Gynura bicolor DC. J Chemi Article ID 5987096. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5987096