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Field efficacy of Metarhizium acridum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in the control of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchards in Senegal

Abstract

The effectiveness of the “attract and kill” approach for the management of Bactrocera dorsalis in citrus orchards using autoinoculation strategy was evaluated in three locations in Senegal (Sindia, Sébikhotane and Ndoyene), between 2016 and 2018. Attractant Contaminant Traps (ACT) were treated with 0.3 g of Metarhizium acridum, and methyl eugenol was then deployed at densities of 25, 50 and 100 ACT to infect the flies. Recovery Traps (RT) containing methyl eugenol and a toxicant, Timaye were used to monitor the B. dorsalis population and the contamination rate. Results showed that the rate of contaminated flies increases with the number of ACT, at an average daily rate of contaminated flies of 68.1%, 85.44% and 99.67% at 25, 50, 100 traps, respectively. No contaminated flies were found in the control. The number of flies caught decreased from 21.7, 4.2 and 6.2 flies per day, respectively, for 25, 50, 100 ACTs and control in the first week, to 0.64, 0.71, 0.71 and 99.9 flies per day, respectively, for 25, 50, 100 ACTs and the control. All the flies caught at M. acridum treated sites were contaminated. No significant difference between the incidence of fruit damage in the three ACT densities and the control was found in the first week; however, there was a significant difference over time, from 90.0, 96.7 and 83.3% in the first week, to 30, 50 and 46.7% at the 14th week, respectively, for 25, 50 and 100 ACTs. No significant differences were found in the control. This present study demonstrated the efficacy of autoinoculative systems based-M. acridum for the management of B. dorsalis in citrus orchards in Senegal. This strategy is economical as it uses very little amounts of inoculum with locally made materials.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Senegalese Plant Protection Directorate for making the work possible, the team of technicians and trainees from the agricultural zoology laboratory for the follow-up and Dr. Charles Haddad, producer for facilitating access to his orchard.

Funding

- Plant Protection Directorate of Senegal make the M. acridum strain available free of charge

- Dr. Charles Haddad paid the Methyl eugenol and fund some material to make traps.

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Correspondence to Papa Djibril Faye.

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Faye, P.D., Bal, A.B., Ndiaye, N.M. et al. Field efficacy of Metarhizium acridum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in the control of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchards in Senegal. Int J Trop Insect Sci 41, 1185–1195 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42690-020-00306-5

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Keywords

  • Autoinoculation
  • Bactrocera dorsalis
  • Metarhizium acridum
  • Attractive contaminant trap