International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 235–241 | Cite as

Biology and seasonal incidence of the jack shoot and fruit borer, Diaphania caesalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

  • Soumya Kallekkattil
  • Aswatha Krishnamoorthy
  • Melally G. VenkateshaEmail author
Original Research Article


The biology and seasonal incidence of the shoot and fruit borer of jackfruit tree, Diaphania caesalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied. The male and female moths completed their life cycle in 30.4 ± 2.3 and 31.8 ± 2.3 days respectively with five larval instars. The mean incubation period of the egg, developmental duration of larva, prepupa and pupa were 4.9 ± 0.6, 17 ± 0.6, 3.6 ± 0.4, 8 ± 0.4 days respectively. The first and last instar larva measured 2.6 ± 0.3 and 22.4 ± 0.4 mm in length respectively. Unfed moths lived significantly shorter duration (6–9 days) than those with access to water (9–12 days), honey (12–14 days), and honey with vitamin supplement (14–17 days). The incidence of D. caesalis was recorded throughout the year during 2013–2016 indicated an overlapping of generations. However, two distinct peaks in the population level were recorded during June–July and October–November. Subsequently, the pest population declined at the beginning of the winter and was at a very low level in summer. Further, analysis of the data with population density and weather parameters revealed that relative humidity, minimum temperature and rainfall were positively correlated, whereas evaporation was negatively correlated with the incidence of D. caesalis.


Artocarpus heterophyllus Diaphania caesalis Biology Seasonal incidence 



The first author is thankful to the Director, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, for providing necessary facilities.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Alam MZ (1962) Insect and mite pests of fruit and fruit trees in East Pakistan and their control. Department of Agriculture, East Pakistan, Dacca, pp 82–83Google Scholar
  2. Alam MZ (1964) Insect and mite pests of fruits and fruit trees in Bangladesh and their control (rev Ed). Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Directorate of Agriculture Research and Education, Bangladesh, pp 1–119Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous (1954) A list of insect pests of forest plants in India and the adjacent countries. Indian For Bull New Ser Entomol 171(1):85Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (1995) Fruit production manual. Horticulture Research and Development project with DAE and BADC, Dhaka, p 286Google Scholar
  5. Ayyar TVR (1938) An annotates conspectus of insects affecting fruit crops in India. Madras Agri J 26(9):431–451Google Scholar
  6. Beeson CFC (1941) The ecology and control of the forest insects of India and the neighboring countries, p 527Google Scholar
  7. Bilapate GG, Talati GM (1978) Some studies on bionomics of castor shoot and capsule borer Dichocrocis punctiferalis (Guenee). J Maharashtra Agril Univ 3:47–49Google Scholar
  8. Butani DK (1979) Insect pests of fruit crops and their control: jackfruit. Pesticides 12(11):36–44Google Scholar
  9. Caloran FB, Ferino MP (1968) Seasonal fluctuation of stem borers, thrips and leaf folders of rice in the Philippines. Philippine Entomol 1(2):149–160Google Scholar
  10. Chaitanya T, Sreedevi K, Navatha L, Murali Krishna T, Prasanti L (2012) Bionomics and population dynamics of legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Curr Biotica 5(4):446–453Google Scholar
  11. Fletcher TB (1914) Some south Indian insects. Government Press, Madras, p 565Google Scholar
  12. Ganesha CAK, Mohan IN, Basavaraj K, Naik MC (2013) Biology of castor shoot and capsule borer. Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Curr Biotica 7(3):188–195Google Scholar
  13. Hugar SV, Venkatesh H, Hanumanthaswamy BC, Pradeep S (2010) Comparative biology of yellow stem borer, Scirpopahaga incertulas walker (Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae) in aerobic and transplanted rice international how to make short ? J Agric Sci 6(1):160–163Google Scholar
  14. Karim MA (1995) Insect pests of fruits and their control in Bangladesh. In: Fruit production manual, horticulture Research and Development project in collaboration with Department of Corporation, Dhaka, p113Google Scholar
  15. Khan MAM, Islam KS (2004) Nature and extent of damage of jackfruit borer, Diaphania caesalis Walker in Bangladesh. J Biol Control Sci 4(3):327–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krishnamurthy K, Khan MM, Avadhani KK, Gurumurthy BR (1989) Three decades of cardamom research, regional Research Station (1958-1988). Station Technol Bull 2:44–68Google Scholar
  17. Manjunath (2002) Insect pests of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L) with special reference to the biology and management of jack shoot and fruit borer, Diaphania caesalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). M Sc Thesis. University of Agricultural Sciences, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  18. Manjunatha R, Mohan Kumar R, Ganesha H (2014) Biology of jackfruit shoot and fruit borer, Diaphania caesalis (Walker) (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera). Trends Biosci 7(22):3705–3707Google Scholar
  19. Martinez MA (1999) Biology of jackfruit borers. Philippine J Crop Sci 24(1):27Google Scholar
  20. Nair MRGK (1975) Insects and mites of crops in India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, p 231Google Scholar
  21. Ochas JJ, Soule MJ, Welburg C (1981) Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture. MacMillan Co, New York, pp 625–630Google Scholar
  22. Onekutu A, Omoloye A, Odebiyi JA (2013) Biology of egg fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee (Crambidae) on the garden egg, Solanum gilo Raddi. J Entomol 10(3):156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Panchal BM, Kachole MS (2013) Life cycle of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on an artificial diets. Int J Plant Anim Environ Sci 3(4):19–22Google Scholar
  24. Patil JJ, Bheemanna AM, Sreenivas AG, Naganagoud A (2013) Seasonal incidence of sucking pests on mulberry correlated with weather parameters. Ann Plant Prot Sci 2:261–264Google Scholar
  25. Peter C, David BV (1991) Population dynamics of the pumpkin caterpillar, (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Tropical Pest Management 37(1):75–79Google Scholar
  26. Rahmathulla VK, Kishor Kumar CM, Angadi BS, Sivaprasad V (2012) Association of climatic factors on population dynamics of leaf roller, Diaphania pulverulentalis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in mulberry plantations of sericulture seed farm. Psyche:12:1–12:6Google Scholar
  27. Samuthiravelu P, Ravikumar J, Qadri SMH, Hemanthkumar L, Jayaraj S (2010) Influence of abiotic factors on population dynamics of leaf Webber, Diaphania pulverulentalis and its natural enemies in mulberry. J Biopest 3(1):37–42Google Scholar
  28. Siddalingappa C, Thippeswamy VH, Shivasharanappa Y (2010) Biology of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Crambidae: Lepidoptera). Int J Plant Prot 3(1):91–93Google Scholar
  29. Siddegowda DK, Gupta AK, Benchamin KV, Manjunath D, Satyaprasad K, Magdum SB, Datta RK (1995) Diaphania sp. infests mulberry in South India. Indian Silk 34(8):6–8Google Scholar
  30. Sonune VR, Bharodia RK, Jethva DM, Gaikwad SE (2010) Life cycle of spotted pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) on blackgram. Legume Res 33(1):28–32Google Scholar
  31. Soumya K, Krishnamoorthy A, Patil P, Venkatesha MG (2015) Evaluation of jackfruit germplasm against jack shoot and fruit borer, Diaphania caesalis (Wlk.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pest Manag Hort Ecosyst 21(1):8–10Google Scholar
  32. Srinivasagowda R (2001) Bioecology and management of mulberry leaf roller, Diaphania pulverulentalis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) M Sc thesis, UAS, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  33. Tandon PL (1998) Management of Insect pests in Tropical Fruit Crops. In: Arora RK, Eds RRV (eds) Proceeding of the IPGRI-ICAR-UIFANET regional training course on the conservation and use of germplasm of tropical fruits in Asia held at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, pp 237–244Google Scholar

Copyright information

© African Association of Insect Scientists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Insect Science Laboratory, Department of ZoologyBangalore UniversityBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations