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A miniaturized flexible implantable antenna with metamaterial resonators for biomedical applications

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The purpose of this study is to propose a flexible implantable antenna based on resonant metamaterials (MTMs) for medical applications. The antenna operates at 2.45 GHz and can be bent into various shapes. The aim is to assess the benefits of integrating MTMs in antenna design, including size reduction and improved gain, to enhance wireless communication efficiency in implantable medical devices.


The recommended antenna design involves integrating MTM resonators into the radiation patch in all dimensions. The substrate and superstrate materials used are flexible Rogers ULTRALAM with a dielectric constant of 2.9. The Ansys HFSS stimulator is used to simulate the proposed antenna in two steps: first, with the antenna in a rectangular shape, and second, with the antenna bent into the desired shape.


The proposed antenna was evaluated through a series of simulations in various scenarios. This antenna works well in free space and was further investigated when integrated into various human body models such as skin layer, four-layer and arm models. The performance results include S-parameters, 2D radiation pattern, and gain values. The amount of the electromagnetic field absorbed by the human body is calculated using the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the maximum input power.


Comparing the results with previous research, the suggested flexible implanted antenna based on resonant metamaterials demonstrates several advantages for use in implantable medical devices.

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Correspondence to Amaria Saidi.

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Saidi, A., Nouri, K., Becharef, K. et al. A miniaturized flexible implantable antenna with metamaterial resonators for biomedical applications. Res. Biomed. Eng. 39, 693–704 (2023).

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