Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is non-recoverable in nature. One of the advanced sight threatening condition in diabetic patient is defined in terms of diabetic macular edema (DME), where the macula gets deposited with fluid rich in proteins called exudates. It is indisputably required to find and treat occurrence of exudates near macula in time, to avoid further complications of retina and vision loss at later stage. However, presence of various dark and bright lesions awakes the need of reliable macula and exudate detection process. Proposed work intends to present a robust, scale, and rotation invariant tool for early diagnosis of DME.
Optic disc (OD) diameter is one of the important parameters; it is always proportional to the size of the retina; an adaptive method based on pixel count and histogram-based segmentation is used for optic disc detection. Center of macula is detected based on estimated optic disc radius calculations and anatomical priors. In order to reduce computational burden, two disc diameter (DD) region near macula is extracted. Hard exudates are extracted with unique combination of CLAHE and morphological operations, followed by Kirsch’s mask for sharp edge detection of hard exudates, and further morphological operations for noise removal.
OD detection algorithm is evaluated on four different databases DiaretDB1, MESSIDOR, DRIONS-DB, and images from local hospital, overall sensitivity of 95.71% is achieved, highest sensitivity value is 98%, and is achieved on first 100 images from MESSIDOR database. Further DiaretDB1 and images from local hospital are processed further for macula detection and exudates finding in macular proximity, as DiaretDB1 is rich in variety of DR lesions and images from the local hospital to deal with real-time issues. Finding macula region is achieved with an overall success rate of 91.93% and overall sensitivity of 99% is reported on both the chosen databases.
Proposed work provides an automated tool, for early diagnosis of diabetic macular edema. The method is straightforward, robust and computationally less complex and improved success rates for feature, and lesion detections are achieved as compared with state-of-the-art methods.
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The authors wish to thank ophthalmologist Dr. Sharad Bhomaj from the Shanti Saroj Netralay, Miraj, India, for kindly providing us with retinal landmarks, lesion ground truth, and clinical advice.
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Patil, S.B., Patil, B.P. Automated macula proximity diagnosis for early finding of diabetic macular edema. Res. Biomed. Eng. 36, 249–265 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42600-020-00065-9
- Diabetic macular edema
- Hard exudates
- Kirsch’s mask
- Optic disc