Skip to main content
Log in

Changes in water stress indicators and antioxidant systems in chilli by chemical seed priming under water stress condition

  • Research Articles
  • Published:
Vegetos Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

One of the most significant abiotic stresses impacting agricultural productivity is water stress. Plant responses to water stress and its survival mechanism is very decisive in the present changing climatic conditions. Seed priming is an important stress management practice for conferring tolerance when plants are subjected to water stress. We tested the effects of 3% silicon dioxide (SiO2), 2.5% potassium nitrate (KNO3), and distilled water for 12 h at two different stages: at the seedling stage under in vitro conditions by subjecting to three different stress levels, namely control, mild stress (5%—PEG 6000), and moderate stress (10%—PEG 6000), and at the flowering stage under greenhouse conditions by withholding irrigation for 4 days. The results at the seedling stage under water stress conditions revealed that in primed seed, there is an increased Seedling Vigour Index I (SVI I), Seedling Vigour Index II (SVI II), and proline content with decrease of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) when compared to unprimed seeds, while results at flowering stage disclosed that reduced Cell Membrane Stability Index, relative water content, fruit yield plant −1, number of seeds fruit −1 and seed yield plant −1 under water stress conditions with respective of control condition but seeds primed with 3% SiO2 and 2.5% KNO3 showed significantly increased value when compared to unprimed seeds. The antioxidant activity levels like peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased under drought conditions compared to the control condition, even though primed seeds marked a significant difference. The findings revealed that the seeds primed with 2.5% KNO3 recorded high antioxidant levels with maximum water absorption capacity, while seeds with 3% SiO2 can be suggested for seed production when there is water stress.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abdul-Baki AA, Anderson JD (1973) Vigour determination of soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci 13:630–633

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Acharya P, Jayaprakasha GK, Crosby KM, Jifon JL, Patil BS (2020) Nanoparticle-mediated seed priming improves germination, growth, yield, and quality of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) at multi-locations in Texas. Sci Rep 10:1–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Afzal S, Akbar N, Ahmad Z, Maqsood Q, Iqbal M, Aslam MR (2013) Role of seed priming with zinc in improving the hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) yield. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 13(3):310–306

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmadpour Dehkordi S, Baluchi HR (2012) The effect of antioxidant enzymes on seed priming and seedling cell membrane lipids peroxidation (Nigella sativa L.) under drought and salt stress. J Crop Prod 5(4):63–85

    Google Scholar 

  • Alamri S, Hu Y, Mukherjee S, Aftab T, Fahad S, Raza A, Ahmad M, Siddiqui MH (2020) Silicon-induced postponement of leaf senescence is accompanied by modulation of antioxidative defence and ion homeostasis in mustard (Brassica juncea) seedlings exposed to salinity and drought stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 157:47–59

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ali LG, Nulit R, Ibrahim MH, Seok CY (2021a) Efficacy of KNO3, SiO2 and SA priming for improving emergence, seedling growth and antioxidant enzymes of rice (Oryza sativa), under drought. Sci Rep 11:3864

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ali L G, Nulit R, Ibrahim, HM, Yien CYS (2021b) Potassium nitrate and silicon dioxide priming improve germination, seedling growth and protective enzymes of rice var. FAR044 under drought. J Plant Nutr 44(16):2385–2398

  • Ali A, Beena R, Manikanta CLN, Alex S, Soni KB, Viji MM (2022) Molecular characterization and varietal identification for multiple abiotic stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Oryza Int J Rice 59(1):59–76 (pp 140–15)

  • Amrutha V, Shanija S, Beena R, Nithya N, Jaslam MPK, Soni KB, Viji MM (2022) Population structure analysis and marker trait association in selected set of Indian tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) varieties under high temperature condition. Gene Resou Crop Evolut 69(1):183–207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-021-01216-2

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ayob K (1986) Effect of available soil moisture on the yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum). Technol Sayur Sayuran 2:57–59

    Google Scholar 

  • Barber JM (1980) Estimation of catalase. Z Pflazen 97:135

    Google Scholar 

  • Barr HD, Weatherly PE (1962) A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficit in leaves. Aust J Biol Sci 15:413–428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Basra SMA, Farooq M, Tabassum R (2005) Physiological and biochemical aspects of seed vigour enhancement treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Sci Technol 33:623–628

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 39(1):205–207

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beena R, Silvas K, Nithya N, Manickavelu A, Sah RP, Abida PS, Sreekumar J, Jaslam PM, Rejeth R, Jayalekshmy VG, Roy S, Manju RV, Mary Viji MM, Siddique KM (2021a) Association mapping of drought tolerance and agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces. BMC Plant Biol 21(1):1–21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03272-3

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beena R, Veena V, Jaslam MPK, Nithya N, Adarsh VS (2021b) Germplasm innovation for high temperature tolerance from traditional rice accessions of Kerala using genetic variability, genetic advance, path coefficient analysis and principal component analysis. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 24(5):555–566. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-021-00103-7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Celik O, Ayan A, Atak C (2017) Enzymatic and non-enzymatic comparison of two different industrial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties against drought stress. Bot Stud 58(1):32

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Choudhary NL, Sairam KR, Tyagi A (2005) Expression of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene during drought in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Indian J Biochem Biophys 42(6):360–370

    Google Scholar 

  • Chowdhury J, Karim M, Khaliq Q, Ahmed A (2017) Effect of drought stress on bio-chemical change and cell membrane stability of soybean genotypes. Bangladesh J Agric Res 42(3):475–485. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjar.v42i3.34506

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costa LD, Gianquinto G (2002) Water stress and water table depth influence yield, water use efficiency, and nitrogen recovery in bell pepper: lysimeter studies. Aust J Agric Res 53:201–210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Das SK, Jana K (2015) Effect of hydro-priming and urea spray on yield parameters, yield and quality of lentil (Lens culinaris medikus). Legum Res 3446:1–4

    Google Scholar 

  • Dhindsa RS, Dhindsa PP, Thorpe TA (1980) Leaf senescence correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. J Exp Bot 32:93–101

  • Diya A, Beena R, Jayalekshmy VG (2021) Physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of seed priming: a review. Legume Res. https://doi.org/10.18805/LR-4638

  • Elstner EF, Stoffer C, Heupel A (1975) Determination of the superoxide free radical ion and hydrogen peroxide as products of photosynthetic oxygen reduction. Z Nat Forsch 30:53–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Fallah S, Malekzadeh S, Pessarakli M (2017) Seed priming improves seedling emergence and reduces oxidative stress in Nigella sativa under soil moisture stress. J Plant Nutr 41(1):29–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Farooq M, Basra SMA, Tabassum R, Afzal I (2006) Enhancing the performance of direct seeded fine rice by seed priming. Plant Prod Sci 9(4):446–456. https://doi.org/10.1626/pps.9.446

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Farooq M, Basra SMA, Wahid A, Ahmad N, Saleem BA (2019) Improving the drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid. J Agron Crop Sci 195:237–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra SMA (2009) Plant drought stress, effects, mechanisms and management. Agron Sustain Dev 29:185–212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Giannopolitis CN, Ries SK (1977) Superoxide dismutase occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiol 59:309–314

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48(12):909–930

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gunes A, Pilbeam DJ, Inal A, Coban S (2008) Influence of silicon on sunflower cultivars under drought stress: growth, antioxidant mechanisms, and lipid peroxidation. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 39(13–14):1885–1903

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hodges D, DeLong J, Forney C, Prange RK (1999) Improving the thiobarbituric acid-reactive-substances assay for estimating lipid peroxidation in plant tissues containing anthocyanin and other interfering compounds. Planta 207:604–611

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hussain S, Zheng M, Khan F, Fahad S, Peng S, Huang J, Cui K, Nie L (2015) Benefits of rice seed priming are offset permanently by prolonged storage and the storage conditions. Sci Rep 5:8101

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ismail MR, Davies WJ (1997) Water relations of Capsicum genotypes under water stress. Biol Plant 39:293–297

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Javed T, Ali MM, Shabbir R, Gull S, Ali A, Khalid E, Abbas AN, Tariq M, Muqmirah (2020) Rice seedling establishment as influenced by cultivars and seed priming with potassium nitrate. J Appl Res Plant Sci 1(2):65–75. https://doi.org/10.38211/joarps.2020.1.2.10

  • Jisha KC, Vijaya Kumari K, Puthur JT (2013) Seed priming for abiotic stress tolerance: an overview. Acta Physiol Plant 35(5):1381–1396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-012-1186-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaur S, Gupta AK, Kaur N (2005) Seed priming increases crop yield possibly by modulating enzymes of sucrose metabolism in chickpea. J Agron Crop Sci 19:81–87

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaya MD, Okcu G, Atak M, Cikili Y, Kolsarıcı O (2006) Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Eur J Agron 24(4):291–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2005.08.001

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • KAU (Kerala Agriculture University) (2018) Varieties releases. https://kau.in/basic-page/varieties-released

  • Lee JJ, Crosby KM, Pike LM, Yoo KS, Leskovar DI (2005) Impact of genetic and environmental variation on development of flavonoids and carotenoids in pepper (Capsicum spp). Sci Hortic 106(3):341–352

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Maleki A, Naderi A, Naseri R, Fathi A, Bahamin S, Maleki R (2013) Physiological performance of soybean cultivars under drought stress. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci 2(6):38–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Manikanta CLN, Beena R, Rejeth R (2022) Root anatomical traits influence water stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Crop Sci Biotechnol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-022-00142-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manivannan P, Abdul Jaleel C, Kishorekumar A, Sankar B, Somasundaram R (2007) Changes in antioxidant metabolism of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. by propiconazole under water deficit stress colloids and surfaces. Biointerfaces 57(1):69–74

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Møller IM, Jensen PE, Hansson A (2007) Oxidative modifications to cellular components in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 58:459–481

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Moosavi A, Tavakkol Afshari R, Sharif-Zadeh F, Aynehband A (2009) Effect of seed priming on germination characteristics polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities of four amaranth cultivars. J Food Agric Environ 7(3–4):353–358

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Moussa HR, Abdel-Aziz SM (2008) Comparative response of drought tolerant and drought sensitive maize genotypes to water stress. Aust J Crop Sci 1(1):31–36

    Google Scholar 

  • Pan Y, Wu LJ, Yu ZL (2006) Effect of salt and drought stress on antioxidant enzymes activities and SOD isoenzymes of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch). Plant Growth Regul 49(2–3):157–165

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Paparella S, Araujo SS, Rossi G, Wi Jayasinghe M, Carbonera D, Balestrazzi A (2015) Seed priming: state of the art and new perspectives. Plant Cell Rep 34(8):1281–1293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-015-1784-y

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pena R, Hughes J (2007) Improving vegetable productivity in a variable and changing climate. SAT J 4:1–22

    Google Scholar 

  • PJTSAU (Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University) (2023) Agricultural Market Intelligence Center. Chilli Outlook, Hyderabad

  • Premachandran GS, Saneoka H, Ogata H (1990) Cell membrane stability an indicator of drought tolerance as affected by applied N in soybean. J Agric Sci 115:63–66

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rathnayaka RMSMB, Minami M, Nemoto K, Prabandaka SS, Matsuchima K (2020) Relationship between water supply and sugar and capsaicinoids contents in fruit of Chilli pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Hortic J Previews 90:58–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reddy PK, Subhani MS, Khan PA, Kumar KB (1985) Effect of light and benzyladenine on dark-treated growing Rice (Oryza sativa) leaves II. Changes in peroxidase activity. Plant Cell Physiol 26(6):987–994

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Radha B, Sunitha NC, Sah RP, Azarudeen TPM, Krishna GK, Umesh DK, Thomas S, Anilkumar C, Upadhyay S, Kumar A, Manikanta CLN, Behera S, Marndi BC, Siddique KHM (2023) Physiological and molecular implications of multiple abiotic stresses on yield and quality of rice. Front Plant Sci 13:996514. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.996514

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Regni L, Del Pino AM, Mousavi S, Palmerini CA, Baldoni L, Mariotti R, Mairech H, Gardi T, D’Amato R, Proietti P (2019) Behaviour of four olive cultivars during salt stress. Front Plant Sci 10:867. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00867

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sahitya UL, Krishna MSR, Deepthi RS, Prasad GS, Kasin DP (2018) Seed Antioxidants interplay with Drought stress tolerance indices in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings. Hindawi 2018:1014

  • Sairam RK (1994) Effect of moisture stress on physiological activities of two contrasting wheat genotypes. Indian J Exp Biol 32:594–597

    Google Scholar 

  • Samarah NH, Mullen RE, Cianzio SR, Scott P (2006) Dehydrin-like proteins in soybean seeds in response to drought stress during seed filling. Crop Sci 46:2141–2150

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sarada C, Ratnam M, Naidu LN, Ramana CV, Rajani A (2015) Chilli production and productivity in relation to seasonal weather conditions in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. Int J Pure Appl Biol Sci 3:207–213

    Google Scholar 

  • Shehab GG, Ahmed OK, El-Beltagi HS (2010) Effects of various chemical agents for alleviation of drought stress in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobot Cluj Napoc 38(1):139–148. https://doi.org/10.15835/NBHA3813627

  • Soltys-Kalina D, Plich J, Strzelczyk-Zyta D, Sliwka J, Marczewski W (2016) The effect of drought stress on the leaf relative water content and tuber yield of a half-sib family of ‘Katahdin’-derived potato cultivars. Breed Sci 66(2):328–331. https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.66.328

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Varier A, Vari A, k, Dadlani M. (2010) The subcellular basis of seed priming. Curr Sci 99:450–456

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Velikova V, Yordanov I, Edreva A (2000) Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants—the protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Sci 151(1):59–66

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang M, Zheng Q, Shen Q, Guo S (2013) The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. Int J Mol Sci 14:7370–7390

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Widuri LI, Lakitan B, Hasmeda M, Sodikin E, Wijaya A, Meihana M, Karthika K, Siaga E (2017) Relative leaf expansion rate and other leaf-related indicators for detection of drought staress in chilli pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Aust J Crop Sci 11(12):1617–1625. https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.17.11.12.pne800

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wojtyla L, Lechowska K, Kubala S, Garnczarska M (2016) Molecular processes induced in primed seeds: increasing the potential to stabilize crop yields under drought conditions. J Plant Physiol 203:116–126

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Xiao X, Xu X, Yang F (2008) Adaptive responses to progressive drought stress in two Populus cathayana populations. Silva Fennica 42(5):705–719

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yan M (2015) Seed priming stimulates germination and early seedling growth of Chinese cabbage under drought stress. S Afr J Bot 99:88–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2015.03.195

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yang F, Miao LF (2010) Adaptive responses to progressive drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes. Silva Fennica 44(1):23–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao TJ, Liu Y, Yan YB, Feng F, Liu WQ, Zhou HM (2007) Identification of the amino acids crucial for the activities of drought-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) of Brassica napus. FEBS Lett 581:3044–3050

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zheng M, Tao Y, Hussain S, Jiang Q, Peng S (2016) Seed priming in dry direct-seeded rice: consequences for emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events under drought stress. Plant Growth Regul 78:167–178

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study was funded by College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala Agricultural University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. Beena.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rohitha, K., Beena, R., Jayalekshmy, V.G. et al. Changes in water stress indicators and antioxidant systems in chilli by chemical seed priming under water stress condition. Vegetos (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-023-00695-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-023-00695-1

Keywords

Navigation