TiO2 NPs is widely used in several fields such as medical apparatus, cosmetics, agriculture, instruments, aviation, petroleum, chemicals, and other fields. The synthesis of TiO2 NPs was characterized by SEM, TEM, PSA, XRD, and UV–vis. The SEM and TEM results showed the structure and size of TiO2 NPs. The PSA, UV–vis. and XRD gossium graph showed the range of nanoparticles and confirmed the crystalline TiO2 NPs. The different concentrations of TiO2 NPs (15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/l distilled water) were prepared and applied to Pisum sativum seeds for 24 h. TiO2 NPs were crystalline in shape having a size of less than 100 nm. Our studies show that low concentrations of TiO2 NPs also affected Pisum sativum and affected plant morphology parameters and chromosomes structure. In our studies, additional compound (alkyl nitrile) is formed due to the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. The effects were more prominent in the case of 15 mg/l concentration which showed the change of phytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Alkyl nitrile was formed due to the effect of TiO2 NPs which might have resulted in the change of the basic composition of organic compounds in Pisum Sativum. Nanoparticles could develop a mutant plant and cross over with normal plants, increasing production, producing hybrids and disease-resistant seeds.
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The authors are grateful to the School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF) and Physics Department of Jiwaji University, Gwalior for providing all available facilities. The authors also thanks to Jiwaji University for financial support for my research work.
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The authors declare that the research work was conducted in the absence of any commercial or relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict to interest.
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The authors declare that the current work was done on plants and there was no involvement of animals. We declare that this work has no harmful effects on any animal and human being.
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Kushwah, K.S., Patel, S. & Verma, D.K. Synthesis and effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Pisum sativum L.. Vegetos 35, 204–211 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-021-00236-8